Abstract

We characterize the timing jitter and intensity noise of an 80-MHz soliton Er-fiber laser mode-locked by a fiber taper carbon nanotube saturable absorber (ft-CNT-SA) up to the Nyquist frequency. The measured rms timing jitter is 3.0 fs (11.0 fs) integrated from 10 kHz (1 kHz) to 40 MHz offset frequency. The measured rms relative intensity noise (RIN) is 0.069% (0.021%) integrated from 10 Hz to 40 MHz (1 MHz) offset frequency. We identify that the resulting timing jitter is dominated by the Gordon-Haus jitter originated from the negative dispersion necessary for soliton mode-locking with a slow saturable absorber.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

2011 (6)

2010 (2)

2008 (5)

J. Kim, M. J. Park, M. H. Perrott, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution,” Opt. Express16(21), 16509–16515 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

2004 (3)

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.29(14), 1581–1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B79(2), 163–173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aditya, S.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boudot, R.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byun, H.

Chen, J.

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, A. I.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J.

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dahlem, M. S.

Diddams, S. A.

DiLello, N. A.

Feder, K. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fong, K. H.

Fortier, T. M.

Fu, S.

Geis, M. W.

Goh, C. S.

Grange, R.

Grein, M. E.

Haiml, M.

Hartl, I.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hoyt, J. L.

Inoue, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

Jablonski, M.

Jiang, Y.

Johnson, T. A.

Jung, K.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Keller, U.

Kersalé, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khilo, A.

Kieu, K.

Kikuchi, K.

Kim, C.

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, T. K.

Kirchner, M. S.

Kobayashi, Y.

Lam, H. Q.

Le Coq, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. E. K.

Lemke, N.

Li, R.

Lorini, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

Luiten, A. N.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Mansuripur, M.

Marcinkevicius, A.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, S.

Mecozzi, A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, A.

Murakami, Y.

Nam, C. H.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1756–1770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

Oates, C. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Obraztsova, E. D.

Orcutt, J. S.

Ouyang, C.

Park, M. J.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noiseof mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express18(5), 5041–5054 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B79(2), 163–173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, M. Y.

Perrott, M.

Perrott, M. H.

Popovic, M. A.

Quinlan, F.

Quraishi, Q.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. Le Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent optical link over hundreds of metres and hundreds of terahertz with subfemtosecond timing jitter,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 283–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

Raravikar, N. R.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, M. Y.

Santarelli, G.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadler, L. S.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schlatter, A.

Set, S. Y.

Shum, P.

Shum, P. P.

Smith, H. I.

Song, Y.

Song, Y. W.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

Spector, S. J.

Sun, J.

Sun, Z.

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T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, “Sub-femtosecond timing jitter optical pulse trains from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), Paper CTuA5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the BOC-based timing jitter measurement of soliton Er-fiber laser mode-locked by a CNT-SA. WDM, 980/1550 wavelength-division multiplexing coupler; OC, output coupler; PD, photodetector; BPF, 1.1-GHz bandpass filter; AMP, microwave amplifier; PS, microwave phase shifter; PBS, polarization beam splitter; HWP, half-wave plate. Solid and dotted lines indicate the optical and electrical paths, respectively. The inset shows the measured cross-correlation trace of two lasers when locking control is not applied.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The measured timing jitter spectral density of CNT-SA-mode-locked Er-fiber laser. The rms timing jitter is 3.0 fs (11.0 fs) when integrated from 10 kHz (1 kHz) to 40 MHz offset frequency. (b) Predicted quantum-limited timing jitter directly originated from the ASE noise. (c) Predicted timing jitter originated from center frequency fluctuation coupled by dispersion when assuming the excess noise factor of three. (d) Predicted RIN-coupled timing jitter by the Kramers-Krönig relation. (e) Predicted RIN-coupled timing jitter by the CNT-SA. Inset: Optical spectrum of the CNT-SA-mode-locked Er-fiber laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured relative intensity noise (RIN) spectra of the CNT-SA-mode-locked fiber laser (curve (i)) and the NPE-based stretched-pulse reference laser (curve (ii)). The integration bandwidth is from 10 Hz to 40 MHz (Nyquist frequency).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Major Laser Parameters of the LUT (ft-CNT-SA-based Fiber Laser) and the Reference Laser (NPE-based Fiber Laser)

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