Abstract

We describe the coupling between optical modes of silicon-on-insulator SOI waveguides and Ge/SiGe quantum well modulators using an eigenmode expansion method. Laterally tapered features in the epitaxial layers are investigated for adiabatic optical coupling, and we find that there is a critical width range of the Ge/SiGe structure of 200–300 nm, where the taper angle should be minimised. We identify optimised taper profiles, which, for 1-μm-wide waveguides, allow the length of an adiabatic taper to be reduced from 250 μm for a simple linear profile to 40 μm for the optimised structure.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe quantum-confined stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol28, 3273 –3281 (2010).

2008 (3)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun and A. Yariv, “Engineering supermode silicon/III-V hybrid waveguides for laser oscillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 923–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aalto, K. Solehmainen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and P. Heimala, “Low-loss converters between optical silicon waveguides of different sizes and types,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 709–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aalto, T.

T. Aalto, K. Solehmainen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and P. Heimala, “Low-loss converters between optical silicon waveguides of different sizes and types,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 709–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Augendre, E.

Bakir, B. B.

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

Black, R.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bordel, D.

Bowers, J.

Bowers, J. E.

Brenot, R.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Bruyant, A.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Capellini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cercus, J.-L.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chaisakul, P.

Chelnokov, A.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

Claussen, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L.

L. Coldren, S. Corzine, and M. Mashanovitch, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe quantum-confined stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol28, 3273 –3281 (2010).

Corzine, S.

L. Coldren, S. Corzine, and M. Mashanovitch, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Coudevylle, J.-R.

de Valicourt, G.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Delacour, C.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descos, A.

Di Gaspare, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Dong, P.

Duan, G.-H.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Duan, N.

Edmond, S.

Edwards, E. H.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Evangelisti, F.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

Fedeli, J. M.

B. B. Bakir, A. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, “Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers,” Opt. Express19, 10317–10325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J.-M.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Feng, D.

Feng, N.

Fidaner, O.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fong, J.

Frigerio, J.

Fulbert, L.

Galluzzi, F.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonthier, F.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

B. B. Bakir, A. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, “Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers,” Opt. Express19, 10317–10325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halbwax, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harjanne, M.

T. Aalto, K. Solehmainen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and P. Heimala, “Low-loss converters between optical silicon waveguides of different sizes and types,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 709–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J.-M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heimala, P.

T. Aalto, K. Solehmainen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and P. Heimala, “Low-loss converters between optical silicon waveguides of different sizes and types,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 709–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helman, N. C.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ikonic, Z.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe quantum-confined stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol28, 3273 –3281 (2010).

Isella, G.

Jones, R.

Kamins, T.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapulainen, M.

T. Aalto, K. Solehmainen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and P. Heimala, “Low-loss converters between optical silicon waveguides of different sizes and types,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 709–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelsall, R.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe quantum-confined stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol28, 3273 –3281 (2010).

Keyvaninia, S.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Kimerling, L. C.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.

Kuo, Y.-H.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.-L.

Lacroix, S.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lamponi, M.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Laval, S.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lelarge, F.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Lerondel, G.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, L.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe quantum-confined stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol28, 3273 –3281 (2010).

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

Love, J.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovitch, M.

L. Coldren, S. Corzine, and M. Mashanovitch, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Messaoudene, S.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Michel, J.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, N.

Palange, E.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

Park, H.

Pascal, D.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N.

Peters, J. D.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, F.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Qian, W.

Qing, F.

Ren, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roelkens, G.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Romagnoli, M.

Rong, Y.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouifed, M.-S.

Rouviere, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roux, X. L.

Salas-Montiel, R.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaevitz, R.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Solehmainen, K.

T. Aalto, K. Solehmainen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and P. Heimala, “Low-loss converters between optical silicon waveguides of different sizes and types,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 709–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Tang, Y.

Thourhout, D. V.

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

Valavanis, A.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe quantum-confined stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol28, 3273 –3281 (2010).

Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Yariv, A.

Yu, M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal–semiconductor–metal near-infrared light detector based on epitaxial ge/si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 3175–3177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing,” Electron. Lett.44, 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Aalto, K. Solehmainen, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, and P. Heimala, “Low-loss converters between optical silicon waveguides of different sizes and types,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 709–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol (1)

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe quantum-confined stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol28, 3273 –3281 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano. Lett. (1)

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metaloxidesilicon nanophotonics,” Nano. Lett.10, 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express19, 5040–5046 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, and , “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express19, 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Bakir, A. Descos, N. Olivier, D. Bordel, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, L. Fulbert, and J. M. Fedeli, “Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers,” Opt. Express19, 10317–10325 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express20, 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Over 67 GHz bandwidth hybrid silicon electroabsorption modulator with asymmetric segmented electrode for 1.3 μm transmission,” Opt. Express20, 11529–11535 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, and J. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14, 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J (1)

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings J138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

“Photon Design,” www.photond.com .

L. Coldren, S. Corzine, and M. Mashanovitch, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Lamponi, S. Keyvaninia, F. Pommereau, R. Brenot, G. de Valicourt, F. Lelarge, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, S. Messaoudene, J.-M. Fedeli, and G.-H. Duan, “Heterogeneously integrated InP/SOI laser using double tapered single-mode waveguides through adhesive die to wafer bonding,” Proceedings of Group IV Photonics22–24 (2010).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The fundamental TE optical mode for a deep-etched 400-nm SOI rib waveguide. (b) The fundamental optical for a 900-nm-thick Si0.1Ge0.9 epitaxial layer on a 400-nm SOI waveguide, (c) the second order vertical mode and (d) the third order vertical mode. The structure of the 900-nm-thick SiGe layer in (b–d), will which form the active device, is assumed to consist of (starting from the Si substrate and working up) a Si0.1Ge0.9 500-nm-thick virtual substrate, 50-nm-thick intrinsic Si0.1Ge0.9 spacer layer, 250-nm-thick MQW stack of Ge well and SiGe barrier layers (which are modelled as a material with an average refractive index of the well and barrier layers, i.e., of Si0.1Ge0.9), a second 50-nm-thick Si0.1Ge0.9 spacer, and a 50-nm-thick Si0.1Ge0.9 top contact layer. This epitaxial structure is typical of Ge/SiGe MQW devices, and all the modulator structures considered in this paper use this layer sequence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram showing tapered mode adaptors. The incoming optical mode is from the 400-nm-thick Si strip waveguide at the left, and the tapered SiGe epilayer allows the incoming optical mode to be transformed so that it matches that of the MQW device section. The total thickness of the SiGe epitaxy is 900 nm. A second taper transforms the mode back to that of the Si strip waveguide at the right-hand side of the diagram. The quantity wSiGe is the width of the SiGe epitaxial layers at a given point along the length of the structure. (a) shows a linear taper profile and (b) shows the optimised taper profile described later.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Coupling loss for a linearly tapered SiGe section as a function of the taper length. The solid curve shows the S21 from the fundamental mode of the SOI waveguide into that of the Ge/SiGe waveguide. The Dashed curve shows S21 from the SOI waveguide, through the Ge/SiGe waveguide, and out into a second SOI waveguide. (b) The effective mode index of the fifteen lowest order TE modes as a function of the taper width, wSiGe.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The electric field intensity profile through a vertical cross section through the centre of the device, shown along the length of that device. The markers on the top indicate the taper length, and those on the bottom the width of the SiGe layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Optimised taper profile shown as a function of the normalised taper length. The taper function was chosen to provide the shallow taper angle in the range 0.2 < wSiGe < 0.3 μm, and to have no discontinuities. (b) The coupling loss for the optimised taper as a function of the taper length.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The electric field intensity profile through a vertical cross section through the centre of the structure for a 40-μm-long modified taper on a 1-μm-wide Si strip waveguide.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The losses for a single linear taper as a function of the taper length including the material losses from free carrier absorption and indirect absorption. (b) The losses for a single optimised taper as a function of the taper length including the material losses.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The parameters used in the calculations, including the real part of the refractive index, n, for the different layers, and the losses, α. These parameters are applicable at 1550 nm, which is the wavelength that the simulations were performed at.

Metrics