Abstract

In the context of progress towards the organic laser diode, we experimentally investigate the optical and electrical optimization of an OLED in a vertical λ/2 microcavity. The microcavity consists of a quarter-wavelength TiO2/SiO2 multilayer mirror, a half-wavelength-thick OLED and a semitransparent aluminum cathode. The Alq3/DCM2 guest-host system is used as the emitting layer. This study focuses on the design and the fabrication of a half-wavelength thick organic hetero-structure exhibiting a high current density despite both the thickness increase and the cathode thickness reduction. The emission wavelength, the line-width narrowing and the current-density are studied as a function of two key parameters: the hetero-structure optical thickness and the aluminum cathode thickness. The experimental results show that a 125 nm thick cavity OLED ended by a 20 nm thick aluminum cathode exhibits a resonance at 606 nm with a full width at half maximum of 11 nm, and with current-densities exceeding 0.5 A/cm2. We show that even without a top high-quality-mirror the incomplete microcavity λ/2 OLED hetero-structure exhibits a clear modification of the spontaneous emission at normal incidence.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).
  3. M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev.66, 1–16 (2002).
  4. E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).
  5. M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Hung, T.-H. Hou, C.-Y. Lin, and K.-T. Wong, “Hole mobilities of 2,7- and 2,2′-disubstituted 9,9′-spirobifluorene-based triaryldiamines and their application as hole transport materials in OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.19(25), 6350–6357 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Injection and Transport of High Current Density over 1000 A/cm2 in Organic Light Emitting Diodes under Pulse Excitation,” J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3659–3662 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Tessler, N. T. Harrison, and R. H. Friend, “High peak brightness polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(1), 64–68 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Liu, H. Li, C. Song, Y. Liao, and M. Tian, “Microcavity organic laser device under electrical pumping,” Opt. Lett.34(4), 503–505 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 546–549 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Kasemann, R. Brueckner, H. Frob, and K. Leo, “Organic light-emitting diodes under high currents explored by transient electroluminescence on the nanosecond scale,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 115208 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Device physics of organic light-emitting diodes based on molecular materials,” Org. Electron.2(1), 1–36 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Chakaroun, A. Coens, N. Fabre, F. Gourdon, J. Solard, A. Fischer, A. Boudrioua, and C. C. Lee, “Optimal design of a microcavity organic laser device under electrical pumping,” Opt. Express19(2), 493–505 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Y. Park, C. H. Lee, W. J. Song, and C. Seoul, “Enhanced electron injection in organic light-emitting devices using Al/LiF electrodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys.1(1), 116–120 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. L. Chen, W. L. Li, H. Z. Wei, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Organic ultraviolet photovoltaic diodes based on copper phthalocyanine as an electron acceptor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(12), 1788–1796 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Ma and X. Liu, “Phase shift and penetration depth of metal mirrors in a microcavity structure,” Appl. Opt.46(25), 6247 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. A. Neyts, “Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15(4), 962–971 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

D. Kasemann, R. Brueckner, H. Frob, and K. Leo, “Organic light-emitting diodes under high currents explored by transient electroluminescence on the nanosecond scale,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 115208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Chakaroun, A. Coens, N. Fabre, F. Gourdon, J. Solard, A. Fischer, A. Boudrioua, and C. C. Lee, “Optimal design of a microcavity organic laser device under electrical pumping,” Opt. Express19(2), 493–505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

X. Liu, H. Li, C. Song, Y. Liao, and M. Tian, “Microcavity organic laser device under electrical pumping,” Opt. Lett.34(4), 503–505 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Hung, T.-H. Hou, C.-Y. Lin, and K.-T. Wong, “Hole mobilities of 2,7- and 2,2′-disubstituted 9,9′-spirobifluorene-based triaryldiamines and their application as hole transport materials in OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.19(25), 6350–6357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ma and X. Liu, “Phase shift and penetration depth of metal mirrors in a microcavity structure,” Appl. Opt.46(25), 6247 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

L. L. Chen, W. L. Li, H. Z. Wei, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Organic ultraviolet photovoltaic diodes based on copper phthalocyanine as an electron acceptor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(12), 1788–1796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Injection and Transport of High Current Density over 1000 A/cm2 in Organic Light Emitting Diodes under Pulse Excitation,” J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3659–3662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev.66, 1–16 (2002).

2001 (3)

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Device physics of organic light-emitting diodes based on molecular materials,” Org. Electron.2(1), 1–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Park, C. H. Lee, W. J. Song, and C. Seoul, “Enhanced electron injection in organic light-emitting devices using Al/LiF electrodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys.1(1), 116–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

N. Tessler, N. T. Harrison, and R. H. Friend, “High peak brightness polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(1), 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Neyts, “Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15(4), 962–971 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Injection and Transport of High Current Density over 1000 A/cm2 in Organic Light Emitting Diodes under Pulse Excitation,” J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3659–3662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev.66, 1–16 (2002).

Berggren, M.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Berleb, S.

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Device physics of organic light-emitting diodes based on molecular materials,” Org. Electron.2(1), 1–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bjork, G.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Boudrioua, A.

Brueckner, R.

D. Kasemann, R. Brueckner, H. Frob, and K. Leo, “Organic light-emitting diodes under high currents explored by transient electroluminescence on the nanosecond scale,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 115208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Device physics of organic light-emitting diodes based on molecular materials,” Org. Electron.2(1), 1–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chakaroun, M.

Chen, L. L.

L. L. Chen, W. L. Li, H. Z. Wei, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Organic ultraviolet photovoltaic diodes based on copper phthalocyanine as an electron acceptor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(12), 1788–1796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B.

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chen, W. L. Li, H. Z. Wei, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Organic ultraviolet photovoltaic diodes based on copper phthalocyanine as an electron acceptor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(12), 1788–1796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H. Y.

Coens, A.

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, N.

Fischer, A.

Forrest, S. R.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev.66, 1–16 (2002).

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, N. T. Harrison, and R. H. Friend, “High peak brightness polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(1), 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frob, H.

D. Kasemann, R. Brueckner, H. Frob, and K. Leo, “Organic light-emitting diodes under high currents explored by transient electroluminescence on the nanosecond scale,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 115208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gehlhaar, R.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gellermann, W.

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gourdon, F.

Granlund, T.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Grastrom, M.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Graupner, W.

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

Haritani, T.

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, N. T.

N. Tessler, N. T. Harrison, and R. H. Friend, “High peak brightness polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(1), 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, R.

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, T.-H.

Y.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Hung, T.-H. Hou, C.-Y. Lin, and K.-T. Wong, “Hole mobilities of 2,7- and 2,2′-disubstituted 9,9′-spirobifluorene-based triaryldiamines and their application as hole transport materials in OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.19(25), 6350–6357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.-

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hung, W.-Y.

Y.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Hung, T.-H. Hou, C.-Y. Lin, and K.-T. Wong, “Hole mobilities of 2,7- and 2,2′-disubstituted 9,9′-spirobifluorene-based triaryldiamines and their application as hole transport materials in OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.19(25), 6350–6357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ingenas, O.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Inoue, M.

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasemann, D.

D. Kasemann, R. Brueckner, H. Frob, and K. Leo, “Organic light-emitting diodes under high currents explored by transient electroluminescence on the nanosecond scale,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 115208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Injection and Transport of High Current Density over 1000 A/cm2 in Organic Light Emitting Diodes under Pulse Excitation,” J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3659–3662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-H.

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

Kim, Y. H.

Koschorreck, M.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lane, P. A.

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Lee, C. H.

S. Y. Park, C. H. Lee, W. J. Song, and C. Seoul, “Enhanced electron injection in organic light-emitting devices using Al/LiF electrodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys.1(1), 116–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lee, J.-I.

Leising, G.

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

Leo, K.

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kasemann, R. Brueckner, H. Frob, and K. Leo, “Organic light-emitting diodes under high currents explored by transient electroluminescence on the nanosecond scale,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 115208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

L. L. Chen, W. L. Li, H. Z. Wei, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Organic ultraviolet photovoltaic diodes based on copper phthalocyanine as an electron acceptor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(12), 1788–1796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, W.-

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. L.

L. L. Chen, W. L. Li, H. Z. Wei, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Organic ultraviolet photovoltaic diodes based on copper phthalocyanine as an electron acceptor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(12), 1788–1796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Liao, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Hung, T.-H. Hou, C.-Y. Lin, and K.-T. Wong, “Hole mobilities of 2,7- and 2,2′-disubstituted 9,9′-spirobifluorene-based triaryldiamines and their application as hole transport materials in OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.19(25), 6350–6357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liess, M.

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

Y.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Hung, T.-H. Hou, C.-Y. Lin, and K.-T. Wong, “Hole mobilities of 2,7- and 2,2′-disubstituted 9,9′-spirobifluorene-based triaryldiamines and their application as hole transport materials in OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.19(25), 6350–6357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

List, E. J. W.

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

Liu, X.

Lüssem, B.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, Y. H. Kim, J.-I. Lee, H. Y. Chu, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Combined effects of microcavity and dielectric capping layer on bidirectional organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2007–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyssenko, V. G.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, F.

Meerheim, R.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mishima, H.

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mückl, A. G.

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Device physics of organic light-emitting diodes based on molecular materials,” Org. Electron.2(1), 1–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naik, A. K.

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

Nakamura, K.

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakanotani, H.

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Injection and Transport of High Current Density over 1000 A/cm2 in Organic Light Emitting Diodes under Pulse Excitation,” J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3659–3662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Namdas, E. B.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K. A.

O'Brien, D. F.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev.66, 1–16 (2002).

Oyamada, T.

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Injection and Transport of High Current Density over 1000 A/cm2 in Organic Light Emitting Diodes under Pulse Excitation,” J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3659–3662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

S. Y. Park, C. H. Lee, W. J. Song, and C. Seoul, “Enhanced electron injection in organic light-emitting devices using Al/LiF electrodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys.1(1), 116–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Q.-

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruzeckas, A.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Injection and Transport of High Current Density over 1000 A/cm2 in Organic Light Emitting Diodes under Pulse Excitation,” J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3659–3662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

Seoul, C.

S. Y. Park, C. H. Lee, W. J. Song, and C. Seoul, “Enhanced electron injection in organic light-emitting devices using Al/LiF electrodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys.1(1), 116–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shinar, J.

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

Solard, J.

Song, C.

Song, W. J.

S. Y. Park, C. H. Lee, W. J. Song, and C. Seoul, “Enhanced electron injection in organic light-emitting devices using Al/LiF electrodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys.1(1), 116–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.-

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sundstrom, V.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Swoboda, M.

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, N. T. Harrison, and R. H. Friend, “High peak brightness polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(1), 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Theander, M.

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Thompson, M. E.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev.66, 1–16 (2002).

Tian, M.

Turnbull, G. A.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. Z.

L. L. Chen, W. L. Li, H. Z. Wei, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Organic ultraviolet photovoltaic diodes based on copper phthalocyanine as an electron acceptor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(12), 1788–1796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K.-T.

Y.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Hung, T.-H. Hou, C.-Y. Lin, and K.-T. Wong, “Hole mobilities of 2,7- and 2,2′-disubstituted 9,9′-spirobifluorene-based triaryldiamines and their application as hole transport materials in OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.19(25), 6350–6357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-H.

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.-

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

N. Tessler, N. T. Harrison, and R. H. Friend, “High peak brightness polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)10(1), 64–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S.-H. Wu, W.- Li, B. Chu, C. S. Lee, Z.- Su, J.- Wang, Q.- Ren, Z.- Hu, and Z.- Zhang, “Visible-blind ultraviolet sensitive photodiode with high responsivity and long term stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 023306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, M. Inoue, H. Mishima, T. Haritani, R. Hibino, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Photopumped laser oscillation and charge-injected luminescence from organic semiconductor single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(22), 221113–16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Koschorreck, R. Gehlhaar, V. G. Lyssenko, M. Swoboda, M. Hoffmann, and K. Leo, “Dynamics of a high-Q vertical-cavity organic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(18), 181108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

Y.-L. Liao, W.-Y. Hung, T.-H. Hou, C.-Y. Lin, and K.-T. Wong, “Hole mobilities of 2,7- and 2,2′-disubstituted 9,9′-spirobifluorene-based triaryldiamines and their application as hole transport materials in OLEDs,” Chem. Mater.19(25), 6350–6357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Granlund, M. Theander, M. Berggren, M. Anderson, A. Ruzeckas, V. Sundstrom, G. Bjork, M. Grastrom, and O. Ingenas, “A polythiophene microcavity laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.288(5-6), 879–884 (1998).

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Y. Park, C. H. Lee, W. J. Song, and C. Seoul, “Enhanced electron injection in organic light-emitting devices using Al/LiF electrodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys.1(1), 116–120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. G. Kozlov, G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. B. Khalfin, J. Wang, S. Y. Chou, and S. R. Forrest, “Structures for organic diode lasers and optical properties of organic semiconductors under intense optical and electrical excitations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(1), 18–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “Injection and Transport of High Current Density over 1000 A/cm2 in Organic Light Emitting Diodes under Pulse Excitation,” J. Appl. Phys.44(6A), 3659–3662 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices,” Nature389(6649), 362–364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Org. Electron. (1)

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Device physics of organic light-emitting diodes based on molecular materials,” Org. Electron.2(1), 1–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O'Brien, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” Phys. Rev.66, 1–16 (2002).

E. J. W. List, C.-H. Kim, A. K. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev.64, 1–11 (2001).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. Kasemann, R. Brueckner, H. Frob, and K. Leo, “Organic light-emitting diodes under high currents explored by transient electroluminescence on the nanosecond scale,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 115208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B85(11), 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. V. Frolov, M. Liess, P. A. Lane, W. Gellermann, Z. V. Vardeny, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Exciton dynamics in soluble poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): Towards an ultrafast excitonic switch,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(22), 4285–4288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

L. L. Chen, W. L. Li, H. Z. Wei, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Organic ultraviolet photovoltaic diodes based on copper phthalocyanine as an electron acceptor,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(12), 1788–1796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the incomplete microcavity: a) Structure of the microcavity and of the organic hetero-structure b) Energy diagram of the organic hetero-structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electrical and optical properties for different thickness of the aluminum cathode: current-voltage curves for a 100 nm thick aluminum cathode, 20 nm, 10 nm and 5 nm . Inset shows the different top-side-emission spectra for 20 nm, 10 nm and 5 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission of the incomplete microcavity OLED, the spectra are normalized with respect to the reference OLED bottom-side emission: a) bottom side emission: the reference OLED (non-cavity) is normalized to 1 (b) Top-side emission. c) Sum of the emission from the bottom side and top side.

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