Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate and experimentally characterize a new class of high-performance silicon photonic modulators—the adiabatic microring modulator. The adiabatic microring modulator utilizes a vertical PN junction and interior electrical contacts, leveraging all the advantages of previously-demonstrated microdisk modulators. However, this device also incorporates an adiabatic transition from the wide, multimode contact region, to a narrow, single-mode coupling region, eliminating unwanted spatial modes common to microdisks. As a result, the adiabatic microring modulator demonstrated in this work is the smallest microring modulator demonstrated to date, with a diameter of only 4 μm, yielding a 6.92-THz uncorrupted free spectral range. Here, we perform an experimental comparative analysis between silicon adiabatic microring modulators, silicon microdisk modulators, and a commercial lithium-niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator. We show that the silicon adiabatic microring modulator using partial doping is capable of operating at 12.5-Gb/s data rates and beyond. This device combines the best of all modulator designs, leveraging the depletion-based method to maximize the speed, utilizing the vertical-junction configuration to minimize the power consumption, employing a unique adiabatic design to eliminate higher-order modes, and using partial doping to reduce resistance, further enhancing the speed of the device.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Biberman, “Silicon photonic revolution through advanced integration,” Future Fab Intl. 42, 25–28 (2012).
  3. A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Proc. International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), WA2 (2008).
  7. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. R. Watts, “Adiabatic microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3231–3233 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CPDB10 (2009).
  12. E. Timurdogan, M. Moresco, A. Biberman, J. Sun, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Adiabatic resonant microring (ARM) modulator,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference (OI Conference), TuC6 (2012).
  13. A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, M. R. Watts, and D. C. Trotter, “Power penalty measurement and frequency chirp extraction in silicon microdisk resonator modulators,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OMI7 (2010).
  15. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” Proc. International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), 1–3 (2012).
  21. Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15079–15085 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Biberman, M. J. Shaw, E. Timurdogan, J. B. Wright, and M. R. Watts, “Ultralow-loss silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4236–4238 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, and R. W. Young, “Maximally confined high-speed second-order silicon microdisk switches,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), PDP14 (2008).
  25. A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. A. Popovíc, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, “Multistage high-order microring-resonator add-drop filters,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2571–2573 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. R. Watts and H. A. Haus, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 138–140 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 967–969 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Novel concept for ultracompact polarization splitter-rotator based on silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10940–10949 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. R. Johnson, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, J. Cardenas, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Chip-based frequency combs with sub-100 GHz repetition rates,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 875–877 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16735–16745 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  37. I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (10)

A. Biberman, “Silicon photonic revolution through advanced integration,” Future Fab Intl. 42, 25–28 (2012).

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15079–15085 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, M. J. Shaw, E. Timurdogan, J. B. Wright, and M. R. Watts, “Ultralow-loss silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4236–4238 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Johnson, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, J. Cardenas, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Chip-based frequency combs with sub-100 GHz repetition rates,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 875–877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed CMOS silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Novel concept for ultracompact polarization splitter-rotator based on silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10940–10949 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, D.

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Barwicz, T.

Beals, M.

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bessette, J. T.

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, M. J. Shaw, E. Timurdogan, J. B. Wright, and M. R. Watts, “Ultralow-loss silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4236–4238 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, “Silicon photonic revolution through advanced integration,” Future Fab Intl. 42, 25–28 (2012).

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cardenas, J.

Chan, J.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chu, T.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dai, D.

Davids, P. S.

DeRose, C. T.

Dong, P.

Feng, D.

Fisher, M.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gill, D. M.

Giziewicz, W.

Green, W. M. J.

Haus, H. A.

Ho, R.

Hong, C. Y.

Hu, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

Johnson, A. R.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kern, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Lentine, A. L.

Levy, J. S.

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, J. T. S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

A. R. Johnson, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, J. Cardenas, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Chip-based frequency combs with sub-100 GHz repetition rates,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 875–877 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lira, H. L. R.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F. Y.

Liu, J.

Luo, Y.

Manipatruni, S.

Mathlouthi, W.

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

Ophir, N.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padmaraju, K.

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Palermo, S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16735–16745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N.

Patil, D.

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Popovíc, M. A.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popovíc, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, “Multistage high-order microring-resonator add-drop filters,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2571–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Rong, H.

Rosenberg, J. C.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saha, K.

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Shank, S. M.

Shaw, M. J.

Shubin, I.

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popovíc, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, “Multistage high-order microring-resonator add-drop filters,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2571–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popovíc, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, “Multistage high-order microring-resonator add-drop filters,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2571–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starbuck, A. L.

Thacker, H.

Thacker, H. D.

Timurdogan, E.

Trotter, D. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

A. Biberman, M. J. Shaw, E. Timurdogan, J. B. Wright, and M. R. Watts, “Ultralow-loss silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4236–4238 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, “Adiabatic microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3231–3233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popovíc, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and H. I. Smith, “Multistage high-order microring-resonator add-drop filters,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2571–2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts and H. A. Haus, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization rotators,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 138–140 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 967–969 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, J. B.

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

Xu, H.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, M.

Yao, J.

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

Yu, J.

Yu, Y.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

Future Fab Intl. (1)

A. Biberman, “Silicon photonic revolution through advanced integration,” Future Fab Intl. 42, 25–28 (2012).

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (14)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Novel concept for ultracompact polarization splitter-rotator based on silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10940–10949 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, “Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16735–16745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15079–15085 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Proc. International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), WA2 (2008).

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic resonant microrings (ARMs) with directly integrated thermal microphotonics,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CPDB10 (2009).

E. Timurdogan, M. Moresco, A. Biberman, J. Sun, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Adiabatic resonant microring (ARM) modulator,” Proc. Optical Interconnects Conference (OI Conference), TuC6 (2012).

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, M. R. Watts, and D. C. Trotter, “Power penalty measurement and frequency chirp extraction in silicon microdisk resonator modulators,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OMI7 (2010).

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” Proc. International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), 1–3 (2012).

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, and R. W. Young, “Maximally confined high-speed second-order silicon microdisk switches,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), PDP14 (2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top-view schematic of the silicon adiabatic microring modulator using partial doping, utilizing a single-mode coupling region and a multimode contact region of the microring resonator. (b) 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation overlaying the schematic, showing that only the fundamental radial mode is excited.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top-view scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) image of the silicon adiabatic microring modulator, which comprises a 4-µm-diameter microring resonator, in the depletion-based vertical-junction configuration to minimize the power consumption. (b) Spectral response of this device, showing two consecutive resonances with an uncorrupted 56.12-nm (6.92-THz) free spectral range (FSR).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Four types of silicon photonic modulators, including silicon microdisk modulators and silicon adiabatic microring modulators, with full and partial doping configurations. These depletion-based modulators all employ the vertical-junction configuration to minimize the power consumption.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup diagrams for characterizing the performance of the (a) four silicon photonic modulators, as well as (b) the commercial lithium niobate modulator. Temporal responses of the high-speed optical data were measured at 2.5-, 5-, 7.5-, 10-, and 12.5-Gb/s data rates, and bit-error-rate (BER) characterizations were performed at 5, 7.5, and 10 Gb/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally-measured resonance spectral shifts, induced by varying applied DC voltages at the modulator diode junction. This measurement, taken with –10 dBm of average optical power injected at the input of the silicon chip, characterizes four silicon photonic modulators, including silicon microdisk modulators and silicon adiabatic microring modulators, with full and partial doping configurations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimentally-measured resonance frequency shifts, induced by varying applied DC voltages at the modulator diode junction, for four silicon photonic modulators.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimentally-measured optical eye diagrams egressing from the (a–d) four silicon photonic modulators, including silicon microdisk modulators and silicon adiabatic microring modulators, with full and partial doping configurations, and (e) the commercial lithium niobate modulator, for 2.5-, 5-, 7.5-, 10-, and 12.5-Gb/s data rates. The eye diagrams are overlaid with the true zero corresponding to each configuration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimentally-measured bit-error-rate curves for four silicon photonic modulators, including silicon microdisk modulators and silicon adiabatic microring modulators, with full and partial doping configurations, and the commercial lithium niobate modulator, for 2.5-, 5-, 7.5-, 10-, and 12.5-Gb/s data rates. The bit-error-rate curves for the commercial lithium niobate modulator are set as the back-to-back cases for the silicon photonic modulator curves, producing a comparative power penalty between the two types of technologies in each configuration.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Table summarizing the experimentally-measured performance of four silicon photonic modulators, including silicon microdisk modulators and silicon adiabatic microring modulators, with full and partial doping configurations, and the commercial lithium niobate modulator, for 2.5-, 5-, 7.5-, 10-, and 12.5-Gb/s data rates. The measured power penalty of the silicon photonic modulators is in reference to the measured performance of the commercial lithium niobate modulator.

Metrics