Abstract

We developed a real-time imaging system to probe the light-assisted domain reversal process of Mg-doped LiNbO3. An interesting phenomenon was observed where the domain appeared to reverse just after the laser was obscured. An exclusive electric field of about 350 V/mm was measured at 532 nm of light irradiation at an intensity of 6.6 × 104 W/cm2. The exclusive electric field was considered to be produced by a pyroelectric effect owing to a temperature change in the region of irradiation. The temperature change in the light-irradiated region was calculated to be about 2.3°C. Our experimental results indicate that a change of the electric field caused by the pyroelectric effect may play a significant role when LiNbO3 or other ferroelectric crystals are used under strong light.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, “Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(2), 136–138 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Bermúdez, J. Capmany, J. García Solé, and E. Diéguez, “Growth and second harmonic generation characterization of Er-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 593–595 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2514–2516 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Investigation on reversed domain structures in lithium niobate crystals patterned by interference lithography,” Opt. Express 11(4), 392–405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. A. Louchev, N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “Thermal inhibition of high-power second-harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Jermann and K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3: Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59(4), 437–443 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Takekawa, D. Schütze, and M. Aono, “Large pyroelectric effect in Fe-doped lithium niobate induced by a high-power short-pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082903 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, “Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(6), 429–435 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Takekawa, D. Schütze, and M. Aono, “Large pyroelectric effect in Fe-doped lithium niobate induced by a high-power short-pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, “Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(6), 429–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Louchev, N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “Thermal inhibition of high-power second-harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2514–2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, “Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(2), 136–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Bermúdez, J. Capmany, J. García Solé, and E. Diéguez, “Growth and second harmonic generation characterization of Er-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 593–595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Jermann and K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3: Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59(4), 437–443 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abernethy, J. A.

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2514–2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrovski, A.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aono, M.

K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Takekawa, D. Schütze, and M. Aono, “Large pyroelectric effect in Fe-doped lithium niobate induced by a high-power short-pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G. P.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, “Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(2), 136–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bermúdez, V.

V. Bermúdez, J. Capmany, J. García Solé, and E. Diéguez, “Growth and second harmonic generation characterization of Er-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 593–595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Jermann and K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3: Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59(4), 437–443 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

V. Bermúdez, J. Capmany, J. García Solé, and E. Diéguez, “Growth and second harmonic generation characterization of Er-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 593–595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiarini, M.

Clark, I.

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, S.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, “Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(6), 429–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cube, F.

H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Datta, P. K.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, “Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(2), 136–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

De Nicola, S.

Degiorgio, V.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, “Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(2), 136–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diéguez, E.

V. Bermúdez, J. Capmany, J. García Solé, and E. Diéguez, “Growth and second harmonic generation characterization of Er-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 593–595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2514–2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, “Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(6), 429–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Investigation on reversed domain structures in lithium niobate crystals patterned by interference lithography,” Opt. Express 11(4), 392–405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finizio, A.

Fortusini, D.

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, “Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(2), 136–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foulon, G.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

García Solé, J.

V. Bermúdez, J. Capmany, J. García Solé, and E. Diéguez, “Growth and second harmonic generation characterization of Er-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 593–595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gawith, C. B. E.

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2514–2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, S.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, “Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(6), 429–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Investigation on reversed domain structures in lithium niobate crystals patterned by interference lithography,” Opt. Express 11(4), 392–405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatano, H.

K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Takekawa, D. Schütze, and M. Aono, “Large pyroelectric effect in Fe-doped lithium niobate induced by a high-power short-pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A.

Hoffmann, Á.

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

F. Jermann and K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3: Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59(4), 437–443 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jungk, T.

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Takekawa, D. Schütze, and M. Aono, “Large pyroelectric effect in Fe-doped lithium niobate induced by a high-power short-pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Louchev, N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “Thermal inhibition of high-power second-harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurimura, S.

O. A. Louchev, N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “Thermal inhibition of high-power second-harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lilienblum, M.

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Louchev, O. A.

O. A. Louchev, N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “Thermal inhibition of high-power second-harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luedtke, F.

H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muir, A. C.

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paturzo, M.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, “Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(6), 429–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierattini, G.

Route, R. K.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R.

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schütze, D.

K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Takekawa, D. Schütze, and M. Aono, “Large pyroelectric effect in Fe-doped lithium niobate induced by a high-power short-pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. G.

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scrymgeour, D. A.

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G. R.

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2514–2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soergel, E.

H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sones, C. L.

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, H.

H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B.

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takekawa, S.

K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Takekawa, D. Schütze, and M. Aono, “Large pyroelectric effect in Fe-doped lithium niobate induced by a high-power short-pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, T.

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valdivia, C. E.

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vespini, V.

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, “Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(6), 429–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Cube, F.

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ying, Y. J.

H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. E.

O. A. Louchev, N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “Thermal inhibition of high-power second-harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

F. Jermann and K. Buse, “Light-induced thermal gratings in LiNbO3: Fe,” Appl. Phys. B 59(4), 437–443 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Takekawa, D. Schütze, and M. Aono, “Large pyroelectric effect in Fe-doped lithium niobate induced by a high-power short-pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Steigerwald, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, K. Buse, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on the x- and y-faces of lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultraviolet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 062902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Louchev, N. E. Yu, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “Thermal inhibition of high-power second-harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, “Green-induced infrared absorption in MgO doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(14), 1970–1972 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, “Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(2), 136–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Bermúdez, J. Capmany, J. García Solé, and E. Diéguez, “Growth and second harmonic generation characterization of Er-doped bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 593–595 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Abernethy, C. B. E. Gawith, R. W. Eason, and P. G. R. Smith, “Demonstration and optical characteristics of electro-optic Bragg modulators in periodically poled lithium niobate in the near-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2514–2516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, J. G. Scott, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, D. A. Scrymgeour, V. Gopalan, T. Jungk, E. Soergel, and I. Clark, “Nanoscale surface domain formation on the +z face of lithium niobate by pulsed ultraviolet laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 022906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Sones, A. C. Muir, Y. J. Ying, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, Á. Hoffmann, and E. Soergel, “Precision nanoscale domain engineering of lithium niobate via UV laser induced inhibition of poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 072905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zeng, Y. Kong, T. Tian, S. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Sun, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Transcription of domain patterns in near-stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Wang, Y. Kong, H. Liu, Q. Hu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, and V. Vespini, “Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(6), 429–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Steigerwald, M. Lilienblum, F. von Cube, Y. J. Ying, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, B. Sturman, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 82(21), 214105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1755 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1818 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of experimental setup. L1, L2, L3, and L4, lens; F, 532 nm filter; PBS, polarized beam splitter; S, sample; R, resistance; SG, signal generator; HVG, high-voltage generator; FOI, fiber optics illuminator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between real-time domain patterns on CCD (a) and microscopic domain patterns after 10 minutes etching in HF (b). Two images are in the mirror symmetry because of difference between real-time imaging system and microscopy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Single frame excerpts from movie of light assisted domain reversal process on CCD (Media 1). It is clear that light-assisted domain reversal occurred just after the laser was obscured when applying a electric field of 1.0 kV/mm. (b) Single frame excerpts from (Media 2). It is shown that domain reversed before laser was obscured when applying a higher electric field of 1.4 kV/mm. Center of white circle is the position of laser spot. Words ‘close’ and ‘open’ on the top of movie mean close and open of light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of domain reversal at different times of irradiation. White arrows point to light spot, which is not seen in pictures. Nothing happened at irradiation time of 4 s (a), 7 s (c), 10 s (e), respectively. Domains appeared after the laser was obscured in 0.4 s (b), 2.2 s (d), 0.9 s (f). Images on the right parallel correspond to the images on the left.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of domain reversal assisted by pyroelectric effect. (a) Original crystal. (b) Decrease of P in heating process. (c) Increase of P at the irradiation region due to cooling when light is closed. (d) Domain reversal occurred by assistance of pyroelectric effect.

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