Abstract

We investigated the physical mechanism of high-efficiency glass microwelding by double-pulse ultrafast laser irradiation by measuring the dependences of the size of the heat-affected zone and the bonding strength on the delay time between the two pulses for delay time up to 80 ns. The size of the heat-affected zone increases rapidly when the delay time is increased from 0 to 12.5 ps. It then decreases dramatically when the delay time is further increased to 30 ps. It has a small peak around 100 ps. For delay time up to 40 ns, the size of the heat-affected zone exceeds that for a delay time of 0 ps, whereas for delay time over 60 ps, it becomes smaller than that for a delay time of 0 ps. The bonding strength exhibits the same tendency. The underlying physical mechanism is discussed in terms of initial electron excitation by the first pulse and subsequent excitation by the second pulse: specifically, the first pulse induces multiphoton ionization or tunneling ionization, while the second pulse induces electron heating or avalanche ionization or the second pulse is absorbed by the localized state. Transient absorption of glass induced by the ultrafast laser pulse was analyzed by an ultrafast pump–probe technique. We found that the optimum pulse energy ratio is unity. These results provide new insights into high-efficiency ultrafast laser microwelding of glass and suggest new possibilities for further development of other ultrafast laser processing techniques.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(22), L687–L689 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express14(15), 6971–6980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Luo and L. Lin, “The application of nanosecond-pulsed laser welding technology in MEMS packaging with a shadow mask,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.97-98, 398–404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 85–89 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, M. Schmidt, and H. Helvajian, “Characteristics of laser absorption and welding in FOTURAN glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express19(23), 22961–22973 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express19(11), 10714–10727 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
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2012 (1)

2011 (5)

2010 (2)

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express14(15), 6971–6980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(22), L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. Y. Ho, “Effects of polarizations of a laser on absorption in a paraboloid of revolution-shaped welding or drilling cavity,” J. Appl. Phys.96(10), 5393–5401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Luo and L. Lin, “The application of nanosecond-pulsed laser welding technology in MEMS packaging with a shadow mask,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.97-98, 398–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B116, 43–48 (1996).

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, A.

Bégin, M.

Bovatsek, J.

Brenk, U.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. J.

Cheng, Y.

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cvecek, K.

D’Oliveira, P.

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B116, 43–48 (1996).

Daguzan, P.

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B116, 43–48 (1996).

Doring, S.

S. Richter, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.103(2), 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guizard, S.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B116, 43–48 (1996).

Hélie, D.

Helvajian, H.

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, A.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. Y.

C. Y. Ho, “Effects of polarizations of a laser on absorption in a paraboloid of revolution-shaped welding or drilling cavity,” J. Appl. Phys.96(10), 5393–5401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

Hongo, T.

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horn, A.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iida, M.

Inoue, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express14(15), 6971–6980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(22), L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, W.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kachel, M.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, F.

Lee, J.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lim, K.-S.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

C. Luo and L. Lin, “The application of nanosecond-pulsed laser welding technology in MEMS packaging with a shadow mask,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.97-98, 398–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

C. Luo and L. Lin, “The application of nanosecond-pulsed laser welding technology in MEMS packaging with a shadow mask,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.97-98, 398–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S. S.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B116, 43–48 (1996).

Masuda, M.

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meynadier, P.

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B116, 43–48 (1996).

Micorikawa, K.

Midorikawa, K.

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mingareev, I.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, I.

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity and absorption region in fusion welding of glass using ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Procedia12, 378–386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express19(11), 10714–10727 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, M. Schmidt, and H. Helvajian, “Characteristics of laser absorption and welding in FOTURAN glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express19(23), 22961–22973 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, H.

Nakaya, T.

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. L.

Niino, H.

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express14(15), 6971–6980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(22), L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishiuchi, S.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.103(2), 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, M.

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, Y.

Onda, S.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petite, G.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B116, 43–48 (1996).

Quere, F.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.103(2), 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R. E.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sano, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

Shah, L.

Shimizu, M.

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohn, I.-B.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka, M. Iida, H. Takai, and K. Micorikawa, “Efficient microwelding of glass substrates by ultrafast laser irradiation using a double-pulse train,” Opt. Lett.36(14), 2734–2736 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takai, H.

K. Sugioka, M. Iida, H. Takai, and K. Micorikawa, “Efficient microwelding of glass substrates by ultrafast laser irradiation using a double-pulse train,” Opt. Lett.36(14), 2734–2736 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express14(15), 6971–6980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(22), L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

S. Richter, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.103(2), 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Watanabe, W.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express14(15), 6971–6980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(22), L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Werth, A.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, H.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 85–89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 082601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (5)

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.103(2), 257–261 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys.97(6), 063517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ho, “Effects of polarizations of a laser on absorption in a paraboloid of revolution-shaped welding or drilling cavity,” J. Appl. Phys.96(10), 5393–5401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(22), L687–L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B (1)

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B116, 43–48 (1996).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Procedia (1)

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity and absorption region in fusion welding of glass using ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Procedia12, 378–386 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

C. Luo and L. Lin, “The application of nanosecond-pulsed laser welding technology in MEMS packaging with a shadow mask,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.97-98, 398–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. S. Song and R. T. Williams, Self-Trapped Excitons (Springer-Verlag, 1993).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of experimental setup used for microwelding photosensitive glass substrates by irradiation of double-pulse train. (b) Irradiation scheme for evaluation of the heat-affected zone. (c) Definition of the heat-affected zone based on optical microscopy observation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematics of microwelding of two glass substrates by focused femtosecond laser. (b) Scanning scheme in x-y plane. (c) Schematic diagram of tensile tester.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical microscope images of laser irradiated regions for delay time ranging from 0 to 40 ns and different irradiation times ranging from 0.1 to 10 s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dependence of size of the heat-affected zone on delay time. The first and second pulses both have a duration of 0.2 s and a pulse energy of 0.775 μJ. The red circle and blue triangle indicate the sizes of the heat-affected zones produced by a conventional single-pulse train (pulse energy: 1.55 μJ) for p- and s-polarized beams, respectively. (b) Optical microscopy images for delay times of 0 ps, 60 ns, and 80 ns (pulse energy: 1.35 μJ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Cross-sectional images of laser-irradiated regions for delay times between 0 and 30 ps and exposure times between 0.1 and 10 s. (b) Dependence of the vertical length of the cross-section of heat-affected zone on exposure time for different delay time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of bonding strength on delay time. The bonding strength exhibits the same tendency as the size of the heat-affected zone. It increases rapidly when the delay time is increased from 0 to 12.5 ps, but it decreases dramatically above 12.5 ps. It almost saturates between 30 ps and 2 ns with a small peak at 100 ps and it decreases gradually in the range 1–2 ns.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of bonding strength on ratio of energies of first and second pulses. The optimal energy ratio is unity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A possible physical mechanism of glass welding by double-pulse irradiation. It involves electron excitation and relaxation processes including multiphoton ionization or tunneling ionization, avalanche ionization or electron heating, and the electron trapping at the localized state.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transient absorption of second pulse for various delay times.. The transmittance decreases from 0 to 15 ps, and then increases from 15ps. It has a small dip at 100 ps.

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