Abstract

A Laser Extinction Method has been set up to provide two-dimensional soot volume fraction field time history at a tunable frequency up to 70 Hz inside an axis-symmetric diffusion flame experiencing slow unsteady phenomena preserving the symmetry. The use of a continuous wave laser as the light source enables this repetition rate, which is an incremental advance in the laser extinction technique. The technique is shown to allow a fine description of the soot volume fraction field in a flickering flame exhibiting a 12.6 Hz flickering phenomenon. Within this range of repetition rate, the technique and its subsequent post-processing require neither any method for time-domain reconstruction nor any correction for energy intrusion. Possibly complemented by such a reconstruction method, the technique should support further soot volume fraction database in oscillating flames that exhibit characteristic times relevant to the current efforts in the validation of soot processes modeling.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. D. Smooke, C. S. Mcenally, L. D. Pfefferle, R. J. Hall, and M. B. Colket, “Computational and experimental study of soot formation in a coflow, laminar diffusion flame,” Comb. Flame117, 117–139 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Greenberg and J. Ku, “Soot volume fraction imaging,” Appl. Opt.36, 5514–5522 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Liu, K. A. Thomson, and G. J. Smallwood, “Effects of soot absorption and scattering on LII intensities in laminar coflow diffusion flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans.109, 337–348 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a non-buoyant sooting diffusion flame,” Opt. Lett.30, 3311–3313 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. M. Kennedy, “Modeling and measurements of soot and species in a laminar diffusion flame,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.23, 95–132 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Blanquart and H. Pitsch, “Analyzing the effects of temperature on soot formation with a joint volume-surface-hydrogen model,” Comb. Flame156, 1614–1626 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. M. Faeth and G. S. Samuelsen, “Fast reaction non-premixed combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.12, 305–372 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. D. Chen, J. P. Seaba, W. M. Roquemore, and L. P. Gore, “Buoyant diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.22, 677–684 (1988).
  10. K. C. Smyth, C. R. Shaddix, and D. A. Everest, “Aspects of soot dynamics as revealed by measurements of broadband fluorescence and flame luminosity in flickering diffusion flames,” Comb. Flame111, 185–207 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Mahalingam, B. J. Cantwell, and J. H. Ferziger, “Stability of low-speed reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A33, 1533–1543 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, “Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame51, 203–218 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. J. Daun, K. A. Thomson, F. Liu, and G. J. Smallwood, “Deconvolution of axisymmetric flame properties using Tikhonov regularization,” Appl. Opt.45, 4638–4646 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. O. Akesson and K. J. Daun, “Parameter selection methods for axisymmetric flame tomography through Tikhonov regularization,” Appl. Opt.47, 407–416 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. P. Arana, M. Pontoni, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, “Field measurements of soot volume fractions in laminar partially premixed coflow ethylene/air flames,” Comb. Flame138, 362–372 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. C. Smyth and C. R. Shaddix, “The elusive history of m̃ =1.57–0.56i for the refractive index of soot,” Comb. Flame107, 314–320 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2011

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Blanquart and H. Pitsch, “Analyzing the effects of temperature on soot formation with a joint volume-surface-hydrogen model,” Comb. Flame156, 1614–1626 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Liu, K. A. Thomson, and G. J. Smallwood, “Effects of soot absorption and scattering on LII intensities in laminar coflow diffusion flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans.109, 337–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Akesson and K. J. Daun, “Parameter selection methods for axisymmetric flame tomography through Tikhonov regularization,” Appl. Opt.47, 407–416 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

C. P. Arana, M. Pontoni, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, “Field measurements of soot volume fractions in laminar partially premixed coflow ethylene/air flames,” Comb. Flame138, 362–372 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. D. Smooke, C. S. Mcenally, L. D. Pfefferle, R. J. Hall, and M. B. Colket, “Computational and experimental study of soot formation in a coflow, laminar diffusion flame,” Comb. Flame117, 117–139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

I. M. Kennedy, “Modeling and measurements of soot and species in a laminar diffusion flame,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.23, 95–132 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Smyth, C. R. Shaddix, and D. A. Everest, “Aspects of soot dynamics as revealed by measurements of broadband fluorescence and flame luminosity in flickering diffusion flames,” Comb. Flame111, 185–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Greenberg and J. Ku, “Soot volume fraction imaging,” Appl. Opt.36, 5514–5522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

K. C. Smyth and C. R. Shaddix, “The elusive history of m̃ =1.57–0.56i for the refractive index of soot,” Comb. Flame107, 314–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Mahalingam, B. J. Cantwell, and J. H. Ferziger, “Stability of low-speed reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A33, 1533–1543 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

L. D. Chen, J. P. Seaba, W. M. Roquemore, and L. P. Gore, “Buoyant diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.22, 677–684 (1988).

1986

G. M. Faeth and G. S. Samuelsen, “Fast reaction non-premixed combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.12, 305–372 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, “Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame51, 203–218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ader, T.

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akesson, E. O.

Arana, C. P.

C. P. Arana, M. Pontoni, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, “Field measurements of soot volume fractions in laminar partially premixed coflow ethylene/air flames,” Comb. Flame138, 362–372 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeat, J.

Ben-Abdallah, P.

Blanquart, G.

G. Blanquart and H. Pitsch, “Analyzing the effects of temperature on soot formation with a joint volume-surface-hydrogen model,” Comb. Flame156, 1614–1626 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bockhorn, H.

Cantwell, B. J.

S. Mahalingam, B. J. Cantwell, and J. H. Ferziger, “Stability of low-speed reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A33, 1533–1543 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. D.

L. D. Chen, J. P. Seaba, W. M. Roquemore, and L. P. Gore, “Buoyant diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.22, 677–684 (1988).

Claverie, A.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colket, M. B.

M. D. Smooke, C. S. Mcenally, L. D. Pfefferle, R. J. Hall, and M. B. Colket, “Computational and experimental study of soot formation in a coflow, laminar diffusion flame,” Comb. Flame117, 117–139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daun, K. J.

Dobbins, R. A.

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, “Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame51, 203–218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Everest, D. A.

K. C. Smyth, C. R. Shaddix, and D. A. Everest, “Aspects of soot dynamics as revealed by measurements of broadband fluorescence and flame luminosity in flickering diffusion flames,” Comb. Flame111, 185–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Faeth, G. M.

G. M. Faeth and G. S. Samuelsen, “Fast reaction non-premixed combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.12, 305–372 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ferziger, J. H.

S. Mahalingam, B. J. Cantwell, and J. H. Ferziger, “Stability of low-speed reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A33, 1533–1543 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fessard, M.

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuentes, A.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a non-buoyant sooting diffusion flame,” Opt. Lett.30, 3311–3313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, T.

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gore, L. P.

L. D. Chen, J. P. Seaba, W. M. Roquemore, and L. P. Gore, “Buoyant diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.22, 677–684 (1988).

Gouache, T.

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, P.

Guibert, P.

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. J.

M. D. Smooke, C. S. Mcenally, L. D. Pfefferle, R. J. Hall, and M. B. Colket, “Computational and experimental study of soot formation in a coflow, laminar diffusion flame,” Comb. Flame117, 117–139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, J.

Joulain, P.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a non-buoyant sooting diffusion flame,” Opt. Lett.30, 3311–3313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katta, V.

V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, I. M.

I. M. Kennedy, “Modeling and measurements of soot and species in a laminar diffusion flame,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.23, 95–132 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ku, J.

Lee, S. Y.

V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Legros, G.

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a non-buoyant sooting diffusion flame,” Opt. Lett.30, 3311–3313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lintzinger, T. A.

V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

F. Liu, K. A. Thomson, and G. J. Smallwood, “Effects of soot absorption and scattering on LII intensities in laminar coflow diffusion flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans.109, 337–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Daun, K. A. Thomson, F. Liu, and G. J. Smallwood, “Deconvolution of axisymmetric flame properties using Tikhonov regularization,” Appl. Opt.45, 4638–4646 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahalingam, S.

S. Mahalingam, B. J. Cantwell, and J. H. Ferziger, “Stability of low-speed reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A33, 1533–1543 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mcenally, C. S.

M. D. Smooke, C. S. Mcenally, L. D. Pfefferle, R. J. Hall, and M. B. Colket, “Computational and experimental study of soot formation in a coflow, laminar diffusion flame,” Comb. Flame117, 117–139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Menon, A.

V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfefferle, L. D.

M. D. Smooke, C. S. Mcenally, L. D. Pfefferle, R. J. Hall, and M. B. Colket, “Computational and experimental study of soot formation in a coflow, laminar diffusion flame,” Comb. Flame117, 117–139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pitsch, H.

G. Blanquart and H. Pitsch, “Analyzing the effects of temperature on soot formation with a joint volume-surface-hydrogen model,” Comb. Flame156, 1614–1626 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pontoni, M.

C. P. Arana, M. Pontoni, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, “Field measurements of soot volume fractions in laminar partially premixed coflow ethylene/air flames,” Comb. Flame138, 362–372 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puri, I. K.

C. P. Arana, M. Pontoni, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, “Field measurements of soot volume fractions in laminar partially premixed coflow ethylene/air flames,” Comb. Flame138, 362–372 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roquemore, W. M.

V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Chen, J. P. Seaba, W. M. Roquemore, and L. P. Gore, “Buoyant diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.22, 677–684 (1988).

Sagaut, P.

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Samuelsen, G. S.

G. M. Faeth and G. S. Samuelsen, “Fast reaction non-premixed combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.12, 305–372 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, R. J.

V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, “Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame51, 203–218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Seaba, J. P.

L. D. Chen, J. P. Seaba, W. M. Roquemore, and L. P. Gore, “Buoyant diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.22, 677–684 (1988).

Semerjian, H. G.

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, “Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame51, 203–218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sen, S.

C. P. Arana, M. Pontoni, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, “Field measurements of soot volume fractions in laminar partially premixed coflow ethylene/air flames,” Comb. Flame138, 362–372 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaddix, C. R.

K. C. Smyth, C. R. Shaddix, and D. A. Everest, “Aspects of soot dynamics as revealed by measurements of broadband fluorescence and flame luminosity in flickering diffusion flames,” Comb. Flame111, 185–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Smyth and C. R. Shaddix, “The elusive history of m̃ =1.57–0.56i for the refractive index of soot,” Comb. Flame107, 314–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smallwood, G. J.

F. Liu, K. A. Thomson, and G. J. Smallwood, “Effects of soot absorption and scattering on LII intensities in laminar coflow diffusion flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans.109, 337–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Daun, K. A. Thomson, F. Liu, and G. J. Smallwood, “Deconvolution of axisymmetric flame properties using Tikhonov regularization,” Appl. Opt.45, 4638–4646 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smooke, M. D.

M. D. Smooke, C. S. Mcenally, L. D. Pfefferle, R. J. Hall, and M. B. Colket, “Computational and experimental study of soot formation in a coflow, laminar diffusion flame,” Comb. Flame117, 117–139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, K. C.

K. C. Smyth, C. R. Shaddix, and D. A. Everest, “Aspects of soot dynamics as revealed by measurements of broadband fluorescence and flame luminosity in flickering diffusion flames,” Comb. Flame111, 185–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Smyth and C. R. Shaddix, “The elusive history of m̃ =1.57–0.56i for the refractive index of soot,” Comb. Flame107, 314–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suntz, R.

Thomson, K. A.

F. Liu, K. A. Thomson, and G. J. Smallwood, “Effects of soot absorption and scattering on LII intensities in laminar coflow diffusion flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans.109, 337–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Daun, K. A. Thomson, F. Liu, and G. J. Smallwood, “Deconvolution of axisymmetric flame properties using Tikhonov regularization,” Appl. Opt.45, 4638–4646 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torero, J. L.

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a non-buoyant sooting diffusion flame,” Opt. Lett.30, 3311–3313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vantelon, J. P.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a non-buoyant sooting diffusion flame,” Opt. Lett.30, 3311–3313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Comb. Flame

C. P. Arana, M. Pontoni, S. Sen, and I. K. Puri, “Field measurements of soot volume fractions in laminar partially premixed coflow ethylene/air flames,” Comb. Flame138, 362–372 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Smyth and C. R. Shaddix, “The elusive history of m̃ =1.57–0.56i for the refractive index of soot,” Comb. Flame107, 314–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Smooke, C. S. Mcenally, L. D. Pfefferle, R. J. Hall, and M. B. Colket, “Computational and experimental study of soot formation in a coflow, laminar diffusion flame,” Comb. Flame117, 117–139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Blanquart and H. Pitsch, “Analyzing the effects of temperature on soot formation with a joint volume-surface-hydrogen model,” Comb. Flame156, 1614–1626 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Smyth, C. R. Shaddix, and D. A. Everest, “Aspects of soot dynamics as revealed by measurements of broadband fluorescence and flame luminosity in flickering diffusion flames,” Comb. Flame111, 185–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, “Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame51, 203–218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans.

F. Liu, K. A. Thomson, and G. J. Smallwood, “Effects of soot absorption and scattering on LII intensities in laminar coflow diffusion flames,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans.109, 337–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Fluids A

S. Mahalingam, B. J. Cantwell, and J. H. Ferziger, “Stability of low-speed reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A33, 1533–1543 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst.

V. Katta, W. M. Roquemore, A. Menon, S. Y. Lee, R. J. Santoro, and T. A. Lintzinger, “Impact of soot on flame flicker,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32, 1343–1350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Chen, J. P. Seaba, W. M. Roquemore, and L. P. Gore, “Buoyant diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.22, 677–684 (1988).

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, A. Claverie, P. Joulain, J. P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Interactions between soot and CH* in a laminar boundary layer type diffusion flame in microgravity,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31, 2685–2692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Legros, T. Gomez, M. Fessard, T. Gouache, T. Ader, P. Guibert, P. Sagaut, and J. L. Torero, “Magnetically induced flame flickering,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33, 1095–1103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.

G. M. Faeth and G. S. Samuelsen, “Fast reaction non-premixed combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.12, 305–372 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Kennedy, “Modeling and measurements of soot and species in a laminar diffusion flame,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.23, 95–132 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical arrangement for the 2D-LEM technique. The insert shows a typical frame when the shutter is open and the flame is established.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Consecutive profiles of soot volume fraction for different heights above the burner (Ethylene flow-rate = 6 ± 0.12 cm3/s, oxidizer flow-rate = 1250 ± 33.33 cm3/s, oxygen mole fraction in oxidizer stream (XO2: 0.55), balance gas: N2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Consecutive profiles of soot volume fraction for different heights above the burner (Ethylene flow-rate = 6 ± 0.12 cm3/s, oxidizer flow-rate = 1250 ± 33.33 cm3/s, oxygen mole fraction in oxidizer stream (XO2 : 0.55), balance gas: CO2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstructed time history of soot volume fraction fields in the flickering flame (Ethylene flow-rate = 6 ± 0.12 cm3/s, oxidizer flow-rate = 1250 ± 33.33 cm3/s, oxygen mole fraction in oxidizer stream (XO2 : 0.55), balance gas: CO2).

Equations (2)

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log ( I λ I λ f , b I λ o I λ b ) = 0 L κ λ ext ( r , z j ) d s
f v ( r i , z j ) = λ κ λ ext ( r i , z j ) 6 π E ( m )

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