Abstract

A strictly non-blocking 8 × 8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection is realized on InP by using the phased-array scheme for the first time. The matrix switch architecture consists of over 200 functional devices such as star couplers, phase-shifters and so on without any waveguide cross-section. We demonstrate ultra-broad optical bandwidth covering the entire C-band through several Input/Output ports combination with extinction ratio performance of more than 20dB. Also, nanoseconds reconfiguration time was successfully achieved by dynamic switching experiment. Error-free transmission was verified for 40-Gbps (10-Gbps × 4ch) WDM signal.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. Google - Data centers, http://www.google.com/about/datacenters .
  2. Microsoft – Server & Cloud, http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/server-cloud/default.aspx .
  3. C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in SIGCOMM '10 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 Conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 339–350.
  5. G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in SIGCOMM '10 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.
  6. X. Ye, P. Mejia, Y. Yin, R. Proietti, S. J. B. Yoo, and V. Akella, “DOS—a scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in ANCS '10 Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ACS, 2010), article 24.
  7. A. Vahdat, H. Liu, X. Zhao, and C. R. Johnson, “The emerging optical data center,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2011), paper OTuH2.
  8. N. Farrington, Y. Fainman, H. Liu, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Hardware requirements for optical circuit switched data center networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2011), Paper OTuH3.
  9. A. Wonfor, H. Wang, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Large port count high-speed optical switch fabric for use within datacenters,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(8), A32–A39 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Nicholes, M. L. Mašanović, B. Jevremović, E. Lively, L. A. Coldren, and D. J. Blumenthal, “An 8×8 InP monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) packet forwarding chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 641–650 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Liu, C. F. Lam, and C. R. Johnson, “Scaling optical interconnects in datacenter networks opportunities and challenges for WDM,” in 18th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2010), pp. 113–116.
  12. S. Di Lucente, N. Calabretta, J. A. C. Resing, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low- latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.4(9), A17–A28 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. Doerr and C. Dragone, “Proposed optical cross connect using a planar arrangement of beam steerers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(2), 197–199 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, and Y. Nakano, “Integrated phased-array switches for large-scale photonic routing on chip,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 549–563 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Chiral photonics – sport size converting interconnect, http://www.chiralphotonics.com/Web/coupler.html .
  18. H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, J. Li, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Hybrid integration of silicon nanophotonics with 40nm-CMOS VLSI drivers and receivers,” in proceeding of IEEE 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC, 2011), pp. 829–835.
  19. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. Di Lucente, N. Calabretta, J. A. C. Resing, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low- latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.4(9), A17–A28 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, and Y. Nakano, “Integrated phased-array switches for large-scale photonic routing on chip,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 549–563 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

S. C. Nicholes, M. L. Mašanović, B. Jevremović, E. Lively, L. A. Coldren, and D. J. Blumenthal, “An 8×8 InP monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) packet forwarding chip,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 641–650 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

1999 (1)

C. R. Doerr and C. Dragone, “Proposed optical cross connect using a planar arrangement of beam steerers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(2), 197–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Calabretta, N.

S. Di Lucente, N. Calabretta, J. A. C. Resing, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low- latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.4(9), A17–A28 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

de Vries, T.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Di Lucente, S.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr and C. Dragone, “Proposed optical cross connect using a planar arrangement of beam steerers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(2), 197–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

S. Di Lucente, N. Calabretta, J. A. C. Resing, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low- latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.4(9), A17–A28 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. R. Doerr and C. Dragone, “Proposed optical cross connect using a planar arrangement of beam steerers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(2), 197–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gill, V.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, F. H.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Jevremovic, B.

Kamalov, V.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koley, B.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lively, E.

Mašanovic, M. L.

Metaal, E. G.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, and Y. Nakano, “Integrated phased-array switches for large-scale photonic routing on chip,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 549–563 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nicholes, S. C.

Oei, Y. S.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Penty, R. V.

Resing, J. A. C.

Rooks, M. J.

Sekaric, L.

Smalbrugge, E.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soganci, I. M.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, and Y. Nakano, “Integrated phased-array switches for large-scale photonic routing on chip,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 549–563 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spiekman, L. H.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, T.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, and Y. Nakano, “Integrated phased-array switches for large-scale photonic routing on chip,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 549–563 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, H.

White, I. H.

Williams, K. A.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wonfor, A.

Zhao, X.

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

C. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. R. Doerr and C. Dragone, “Proposed optical cross connect using a planar arrangement of beam steerers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(2), 197–199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Monolithically integrated InP 1×16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 143–145 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Green, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small multimode interference couplers and ultrashort bends on InP by deep etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(8), 1008–1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, and Y. Nakano, “Integrated phased-array switches for large-scale photonic routing on chip,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 549–563 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (10)

Chiral photonics – sport size converting interconnect, http://www.chiralphotonics.com/Web/coupler.html .

H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, J. Li, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and J. E. Cunningham, “Hybrid integration of silicon nanophotonics with 40nm-CMOS VLSI drivers and receivers,” in proceeding of IEEE 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC, 2011), pp. 829–835.

H. Liu, C. F. Lam, and C. R. Johnson, “Scaling optical interconnects in datacenter networks opportunities and challenges for WDM,” in 18th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (IEEE, 2010), pp. 113–116.

Google - Data centers, http://www.google.com/about/datacenters .

Microsoft – Server & Cloud, http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/server-cloud/default.aspx .

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in SIGCOMM '10 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 Conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 339–350.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-Through: part-time optics in data centers,” in SIGCOMM '10 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2010), pp. 327–338.

X. Ye, P. Mejia, Y. Yin, R. Proietti, S. J. B. Yoo, and V. Akella, “DOS—a scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in ANCS '10 Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ACS, 2010), article 24.

A. Vahdat, H. Liu, X. Zhao, and C. R. Johnson, “The emerging optical data center,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2011), paper OTuH2.

N. Farrington, Y. Fainman, H. Liu, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Hardware requirements for optical circuit switched data center networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2011), Paper OTuH3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

.The schematic of the phased-array N × M switch and the definition of parameters used in the calculation

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The layer structure of the phase shifter (left) and the passive waveguide (right). The identical epitaxial structure of p-i-n InP/InGaAsP heterojunction is appropriated for the entire chip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The calculated transmittance of the 8 × 8 switch at output port m for every possible connection with input n = 1 (a) and 5 (b). Plots show the result of ON-states (dots, d = m, r = n) and OFF-states (circles, dm, rn).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

. Photograph of the fabricated InP 8 × 8 switch. Insets show the enlarged views of the input PPAs, star coupler, phase shifters and waveguide array. The device contains 192 phase shifters, 96 waveguides array at each side of the central slab and 16 star couplers. The footprint of the entire chip is 14.3 × 7.2 mm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Static switching characteristics of the 8 × 8 switch. (a) Fiber-to-fiber transmission under all the possible connections between input 1 or 5 and output 4 or 8 that are far apart from each other. (b) Fiber-to-fiber transmission under all the possible connections between input 4 or 5 and output 4 or 5 that are next to each other.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Waveform observed at Output 4 when the connection is dynamically switched from ON state (I5⬄O4) to OFF state (I5→O8/I1←O4)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER measurement set-up. PPG: pulse pattern generator, PD: photodiode, PC: polarization controller, LN: LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator, OBPF: optical band-pass filter, EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier, ATT: optical attenuator.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER characteristics of all 10-Gbps WDM channels and eye-diagrams recorded at a received power of −28 dBm

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T(I n n ,Ou t m )= p=1 A q=1 B η 1 (0, α np ) η 2 ( β np , β mq ) η 3 ( α mq ,0)exp{ i(Δ φ np +Δ φ mq ) },
η s ( θ 1 , θ 2 )= k 2π f s u 1 (x) exp(jkx θ 2 )dx u 2 (x) exp(jkx θ 1 )dxexp(jk f s θ 1 θ 2 ),

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