Abstract

Switchable metamaterials offer unique solutions for efficiently manipulating electromagnetic waves, particularly for terahertz waves, which has been difficult since naturally occurring materials rarely respond to terahertz frequencies controllably. However, few terahertz modulators demonstrated to date exhibit simultaneously low attenuation and high modulation depth. In this letter we propose a new class of electrically-tunable terahertz metamaterial modulators employing metallic frequency-selective-surfaces (FSS) in conjunction with capacitively-tunable layers of electrons, promising near 100% modulation depth and < 15% attenuation. The fundamental departure in our design from the prior art is tuning enabled by self-gated electron layers that is independent from the metallic FSS. Our proposal is applicable to all possible electrically tunable elements including graphene, Si, MoS2, oxides etc, thus opening up myriad opportunities for realizing high performance switchable metamaterials over an ultra-wide terahertz frequency range.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 259–264 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(3), 147–150 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136805 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. J. Allen, D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, “Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.38(17), 980–983 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1977

S. J. Allen, D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, “Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.38(17), 980–983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Adam, S.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, S. J.

S. J. Allen, D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, “Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.38(17), 980–983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boardman, A. D.

A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bolotin, K.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brivio, J.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calizo, I.

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chae, S. D.

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Das Sarma, S.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, P.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freitag, M.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giacometti, V.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golizadeh-Mojarad, R.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimalsky, V. V.

A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gundlach, D.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gundlach, D. J.

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hein, G.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hight-Walker, A. R.

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hone, J.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, E. H.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, W. S.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jena, D.

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
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Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
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S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 259–264 (2012).
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A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
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A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136805 (2010).
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S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
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R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
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F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
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A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136805 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
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A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
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T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
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R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
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A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(3), 147–150 (2011).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sfeir, M. Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stormer, H. L.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, J.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsui, D. C.

S. J. Allen, D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, “Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.38(17), 980–983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, H. G.

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, J. B.

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, P.

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, M.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Yan, Q. Zhang, W. Li, I. Calizo, T. Shen, C. A. Richter, A. R. Hight-Walker, X. Liang, A. Seabaugh, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, D. J. Gundlach, and N. V. Nguyen, “Determination of graphene work function and graphene-insulator-semiconductor band alignment by internal photoemission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 022105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Dawson, K. Pierz, G. Hein, and M. Koch, “Room-temperature operation of an electrically driven terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(18), 3555–3557 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 113104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Hwang, M. Remskar, R. Yan, V. Protasenko, K. Tahy, S. D. Chae, P. Zhao, A. Konar, H. G. Xing, A. Seabaugh, and D. Jena, “Transistors with chemically synthesized layered semiconductor WS2 exhibiting 105 room temperature modulation and ambipolar behavior,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 013107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

A. D. Boardman, V. V. Grimalsky, Y. S. Kivshar, S. V. Koshevaya, M. Lapine, N. M. Litchinitser, V. N. Malnev, M. Noginov, Y. G. Rapoport, and V. M. Shalaev, “Active and tunable metamaterials,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(2), 287–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, W. Li, X. Liang, D. Gundlach, V. Protasenko, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Extraordinary control of terahertz beam reflectance in graphene electro-absorption modulators,” Nano Lett.12(9), 4518–4522 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat Commun3, 780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. Konar, W. S. Hwang, J. H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Yang, C. Jung, H. Kim, J. B. Yoo, J. Y. Choi, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, D. Jena, W. Choi, and K. Kim, “High-mobility and low-power thin-film transistors based on multilayer MoS2 crystals,” Nat Commun3, 1011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 259–264 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Allen, D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, “Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.38(17), 980–983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, S. Rafique, M. Zhu, V. Protasenko, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, ‘Exceptional Tunability of THz Reflectance in Graphene Structures”, IRMMWTHz 2012, Wollongong, Australia, 2012.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An example of the proposed new class of electrically tunable metamaterial THz modulators. a) The proposed THz modulator structure consists of a square lattice of gold cross-slot FSS and a pair of capacitively-coupled graphene layers situated at a distance d. The dielectric separating the FSS and graphene pair and between graphene layers is assumed to be SiO2. The other dimensions used in simulation are shown in the graph. b) Energy band diagrams of the graphene pair. At zero bias, the Fermi level is at the Dirac point of both graphene layers, leading to minimum conductivity and maximum terahertz transmission at the resonant frequency. When biased, the Fermi level moves into the conduction and valence band of the two graphene layers, respectively, resulting in an enhanced conductivity and minimized terahertz transmission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The simulated behavior of the example modulator shown in Fig. 1 as a function of half of the 2DEG-pair conductivity. (a) Transmittance (S21) amplitude, (b) reflectance (S11) amplitude, c) associated absorption by the modulator, and d) phase of transmittance. With increasing 2DEG-pair conductivity, both absorption in the 2DEG-pair and reflection by the modulator increase. At very high conductivities (e.g. 5mS), a shift in resonant frequency is observed, resulting in accompanied higher reflection, reduced absorption and augmented phase shift. There is negligible phase change at the resonant frequency except at very high conductivities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Intensity transmittance at the resonant frequency versus the half conductivity of the 2DEG-pair at different separating distance between the pair and metamaterials. The red, pink and green curves correspond to d = 1, 5, 10 μm. The black curve and blue circles points are, respectively, analytical solutions [7] and HFSS simulation results corresponding to the intensity transmittance through a pair of graphene suspended in air. The pink shaded region shows the typical range of single-layer graphene conductivity. b) Tradeoffs between insertion loss and modulation depth extracted from Fig. 3(a) for two ranges: σ = 0.1-1 mS and 0.001-1mS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sectional Poynting vector distribution near the metallic FSS alone cut along the centerline of the cross. The FSS lies at the z = 0 μm plane. The color and direction of the arrows indicate the amplitude and propagation direction of the THz wave, respectively.

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