Abstract

A novel bending vector sensor based on spatial cascaded orthogonal long period fiber gratings (SCO-LPFGs) written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses has been proposed, and two-dimensional bending vector sensing characteristics based on the simple SCO-LPFGs have been experimentally demonstrated. A three-dimensional orthogonal sensing coordinate system has been established, and the measurement results of the proposed SCO-LPFGs sensor based on the above coordinate system is given, and furthermore both of curvature and bending-direction could be intuitively solved according to the three-dimensional orthogonal sensing coordinates. The research work presented in this paper would be helpful to improve the practicability of fiber vector sensors due to the distinguished characteristics such as simple structure, low-cost, ease of fabrication.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. H. J. Patrick, “Self-aligning, bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett.36(21), 1763–1764 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 850–852 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. H. Zhao, X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, “Bend sensors with direction recognition based on long-period gratings written in D-shaped fiber,” Appl. Opt.43(29), 5425–5428 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurement s with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 829–833 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long-period fiber gratings for structure bend sensing,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(5), 1320–1327 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(8), 3147–3154 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Jin, W. Jin, and J. Ju, “Directional bend sensing with a CO2-laser-inscribed long period grating in a photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(21), 4884–4891 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Y. Shao, L. Y. Xiong, C. K. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Directional bend sensor based on re-grown tilted fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(18), 2681–2687 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. S. Zhang, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, and X. L. Xue, “Fiber-optic bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer exploiting lateral-offset and up-taper,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4480–4482 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.28(6), 387–389 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. G. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. S. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. Zeng, G. Y. Kai, Q. D. Zhao, and X. Y. Dong, “Real time sensing and measurement for two dimensional dynamics quantities using fiber grating,” Acta Opt. Sin.22(11), 1323–1327 (2002).
  17. Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “A novel long period fiber grating sensor measuring curvature and determining bend-direction simultaneously,” IEEE Sens. J.5(5), 839–843 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, and T. Zhu, Principle and Application of Optical Fiber Grating (Science Press, Beijing, 2006).

2012

2010

L. Y. Shao, L. Y. Xiong, C. K. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Directional bend sensor based on re-grown tilted fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(18), 2681–2687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “A novel long period fiber grating sensor measuring curvature and determining bend-direction simultaneously,” IEEE Sens. J.5(5), 839–843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Zhao, X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, “Bend sensors with direction recognition based on long-period gratings written in D-shaped fiber,” Appl. Opt.43(29), 5425–5428 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

W. G. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. S. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. Zeng, G. Y. Kai, Q. D. Zhao, and X. Y. Dong, “Real time sensing and measurement for two dimensional dynamics quantities using fiber grating,” Acta Opt. Sin.22(11), 1323–1327 (2002).

2001

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurement s with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 829–833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. J. Patrick, “Self-aligning, bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett.36(21), 1763–1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long-period fiber gratings for structure bend sensing,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(8), 3147–3154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, F. M.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurement s with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 829–833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(8), 3147–3154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Zhao, X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, “Bend sensors with direction recognition based on long-period gratings written in D-shaped fiber,” Appl. Opt.43(29), 5425–5428 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.28(6), 387–389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard, P. M.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. G.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long-period fiber gratings for structure bend sensing,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

Chen, X. F.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Zhao, X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, “Bend sensors with direction recognition based on long-period gratings written in D-shaped fiber,” Appl. Opt.43(29), 5425–5428 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X. Y.

W. G. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. S. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. Zeng, G. Y. Kai, Q. D. Zhao, and X. Y. Dong, “Real time sensing and measurement for two dimensional dynamics quantities using fiber grating,” Acta Opt. Sin.22(11), 1323–1327 (2002).

Dubov, M.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(8), 3147–3154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Earthgrowl-Gould, T.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurement s with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 829–833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurement s with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 829–833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flockhart, G. M. H.

Floreani, F.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(8), 3147–3154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galliot, E. A. C.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gander, M. J.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S. C.

Geng, P. C.

Gillooly, A.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A. H.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inci, M. N.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Jin, W.

Jones, J. D. C.

Ju, J.

Kai, G. Y.

W. G. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. S. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. Zeng, G. Y. Kai, Q. D. Zhao, and X. Y. Dong, “Real time sensing and measurement for two dimensional dynamics quantities using fiber grating,” Acta Opt. Sin.22(11), 1323–1327 (2002).

Kalli, K.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(8), 3147–3154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laronche, A.

Liu, Y. G.

W. G. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. S. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. Zeng, G. Y. Kai, Q. D. Zhao, and X. Y. Dong, “Real time sensing and measurement for two dimensional dynamics quantities using fiber grating,” Acta Opt. Sin.22(11), 1323–1327 (2002).

MacPherson, W. N.

Macrae, D.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(8), 3147–3154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McBride, R.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun.182(1-3), 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, “Self-aligning, bipolar bend transducer based on long period grating written in eccentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett.36(21), 1763–1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long-period fiber gratings for structure bend sensing,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “A novel long period fiber grating sensor measuring curvature and determining bend-direction simultaneously,” IEEE Sens. J.5(5), 839–843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(5), 1320–1327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurement s with D-type fibre Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 829–833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

Smith, G.

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long-period fiber gratings for structure bend sensing,” Electron. Lett.34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

W. G. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. S. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. Zeng, G. Y. Kai, Q. D. Zhao, and X. Y. Dong, “Real time sensing and measurement for two dimensional dynamics quantities using fiber grating,” Acta Opt. Sin.22(11), 1323–1327 (2002).

Wang, Y. P.

Y. P. Wang and Y. J. Rao, “A novel long period fiber grating sensor measuring curvature and determining bend-direction simultaneously,” IEEE Sens. J.5(5), 839–843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(5), 1320–1327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, K. Kalli, K. Zhou, Y. Lai, G. Smith, M. Dubov, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period gratings written into a photonic crystal fibre by a femtosecond laser as directional bend sensors,” Opt. Commun.281(20), 5092–5096 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(8), 3147–3154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding,” Electron. Lett.41(2), 59–60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.53(1), 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, L. Y.

Xue, X. L.

Zeng, J.

W. G. Zhang, Y. Wang, D. S. Zhang, Y. G. Liu, J. Zeng, G. Y. Kai, Q. D. Zhao, and X. Y. Dong, “Real time sensing and measurement for two dimensional dynamics quantities using fiber grating,” Acta Opt. Sin.22(11), 1323–1327 (2002).

Zhang, C.

X. F. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. S.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for SCO-LPFGs (a) Grating fabrication system (b) Schematic diagram of bending test device (c) Partial enlargement detail of rotation setup

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of independent LPFGΛ = 500 and LPFGΛ = 700 and SCO-LPFGs, respectively

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of the SCO-LPFGs

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured resonance wavelength against curvature for eight orientations (a) Dip B (b) Dip A

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resonance wavelengths of dip A and dip B against curvature

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three-dimensional orthogonal bending vector sensing coordinate system

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured values λA, λB, and the determined and actual values of the curvature and the bending direction at the different moment

Metrics