Abstract

An adaptive liquid lens actuated by liquid crystal (LC) pistons is demonstrated. It adopts fluid pressure introduced by the reciprocating movement of LC droplets to regulate the liquid-air interface which, in turn, changes the optical power of the resultant liquid lens. The competitive features are compact size, simple fabrication, good optical performance, reasonably fast response time and low power consumption. Since the actuation power can be enhanced by increasing the number of LC pistons rather than the operating voltages, it is possible to significantly actuate a large-aperture lens or lens array at a relatively low operating voltage.

© 2012 OSA

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  23. H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal pump,” Lab Chip13(1), 100–105 (2013).
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2013 (1)

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal pump,” Lab Chip13(1), 100–105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (5)

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, K. Aljasem, H. Zappe, and A. Seifert, “Completely integrated, thermo-pneumatically tunable microlens,” Opt. Express19(3), 2347–2362 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Cheng, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip11(3), 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun.284(8), 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Voltage-expandable liquid crystal surface,” Lab Chip11(20), 3426–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. Xu, Y. Liu, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “A novel adaptive mechanical-wetting lens for visible and near infrared imaging,” Opt. Express18(12), 12430–12435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Effects of gravity on the shape of liquid droplets,” Opt. Commun.283(17), 3255–3258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

2007 (3)

W.-S. Seo, K. Yoshida, S. Yokota, and K. Edamura, “A high performance planar pump using electro-conjugate fluid with improved electrode patterns,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 606–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, “Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, “Dielectrically actuated liquid lens,” Opt. Express15(12), 7140–7145 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. A. López, C.-C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(13), 134102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly(ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Agarwal, A. K.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aljasem, K.

Anderson, P. A.

Beebe, D. J.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berge, B.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly(ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bolis, S.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bouvier, C.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bridoux, C.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.-C.

Cheng, H.-C.

H.-C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun.284(8), 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Cheng, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip11(3), 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. R.

De Nicola, S.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edamura, K.

W.-S. Seo, K. Yoshida, S. Yokota, and K. Edamura, “A high performance planar pump using electro-conjugate fluid with improved electrode patterns,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 606–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Fox, D.

Grilli, S.

Hirsa, A. H.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Cheng, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip11(3), 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. López, C.-C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(13), 134102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, T.

Ishikawa, M.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacquet, F.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

Kim, M. Y.

Koo, J. C.

Kopp, C.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

C. A. López, C.-C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(13), 134102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, “Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, “Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(12), 121129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Lee, Y.-J.

Levi, S.

H.-C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun.284(8), 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. D.

Lin, Y.-J.

Liu, C.-S.

Liu, Y.

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Color displays based on voltage-stretchable liquid crystal droplet,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 336–340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun.284(8), 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Liu, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “A novel adaptive mechanical-wetting lens for visible and near infrared imaging,” Opt. Express18(12), 12430–12435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López, C. A.

C. A. López, C.-C. Lee, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electrochemically activated adaptive liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(13), 134102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malouin, B. A.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Cheng, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip11(3), 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchand, G.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

Moharam, M. G. J.

Moreau, S.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morita, S.

Nam, J.-D.

Oku, H.

H. Oku and M. Ishikawa, “High-speed liquid lens with 2 ms response and 80.3 nm root-mean-square wavefront error,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(22), 221108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olles, J. D.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Cheng, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip11(3), 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paturzo, M.

Pouydebasque, A.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pugal, D.

Ren, H.

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal pump,” Lab Chip13(1), 100–105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Color displays based on voltage-stretchable liquid crystal droplet,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 336–340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Voltage-expandable liquid crystal surface,” Lab Chip11(20), 3426–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Effects of gravity on the shape of liquid droplets,” Opt. Commun.283(17), 3255–3258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Liu, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “A novel adaptive mechanical-wetting lens for visible and near infrared imaging,” Opt. Express18(12), 12430–12435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y.-J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S.-T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sage, E.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Patrice, D.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, A.

Seo, W.-S.

W.-S. Seo, K. Yoshida, S. Yokota, and K. Edamura, “A high performance planar pump using electro-conjugate fluid with improved electrode patterns,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 606–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sillon, N.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Son, H.-M.

Son, S. I.

Sugiura, N.

Tabiryan, N.

Vallet, M.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly(ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vespini, V.

Vigier-Blanc, E.

A. Pouydebasque, C. Bridoux, F. Jacquet, S. Moreau, E. Sage, D. Saint-Patrice, C. Bouvier, C. Kopp, G. Marchand, S. Bolis, N. Sillon, and E. Vigier-Blanc, “Varifocal liquid lenses with integrated actuator, high focusing power and low operating voltage fabricated on 200 mm wafers,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.172(1), 280–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, M. J.

B. A. Malouin, M. J. Vogel, J. D. Olles, L. Cheng, and A. H. Hirsa, “Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping,” Lab Chip11(3), 393–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vovelle, L.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly(ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal pump,” Lab Chip13(1), 100–105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Color displays based on voltage-stretchable liquid crystal droplet,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 336–340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Voltage-expandable liquid crystal surface,” Lab Chip11(20), 3426–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun.284(8), 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Liu, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “A novel adaptive mechanical-wetting lens for visible and near infrared imaging,” Opt. Express18(12), 12430–12435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Effects of gravity on the shape of liquid droplets,” Opt. Commun.283(17), 3255–3258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y.-J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S.-T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal pump,” Lab Chip13(1), 100–105 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Color displays based on voltage-stretchable liquid crystal droplet,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 336–340 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Voltage-expandable liquid crystal surface,” Lab Chip11(20), 3426–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Cheng, S. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Levi, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive mechanical-wetting lens actuated by ferrofluids,” Opt. Commun.284(8), 2118–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Effects of gravity on the shape of liquid droplets,” Opt. Commun.283(17), 3255–3258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Liu, H. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “A novel adaptive mechanical-wetting lens for visible and near infrared imaging,” Opt. Express18(12), 12430–12435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y.-J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S.-T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, J. A.

Yokota, S.

W.-S. Seo, K. Yoshida, S. Yokota, and K. Edamura, “A high performance planar pump using electro-conjugate fluid with improved electrode patterns,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 606–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

W.-S. Seo, K. Yoshida, S. Yokota, and K. Edamura, “A high performance planar pump using electro-conjugate fluid with improved electrode patterns,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.134(2), 606–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H.

Zeng, X.

D. Zhu, C. Li, X. Zeng, and H. Jiang, “Tunable-focus microlens arrays on curved surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081111–081113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhu, D.

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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (88 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (520 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (4059 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (190 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The layout of lens hole and reservoir holes on the top acrylic slab, (b) the layout of the interdigitated ITO electrode and Teflon layer on the bottom glass slab (the aperture and width of ITO stripes are not drawn by scale.), (c) liquid lens and LC pistons are at rest state, and (d) liquid lens is actuated by LC pistons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Lens cell, (b) the images observed through the microscope without the liquid lens at V = 0, and (d)-(k) with the liquid lens at the specified voltages (Media 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The images taken through the aperture under white light illumination and the deformation of LC pistons. Single liquid lens actuated by four LC pistons at (a) V = 0 and (b) V = 80Vrms (Media 2 and Media 3), and two liquid lenses actuated by four LC pistons at (c) V = 0 and (d) V = 80 Vrms (Media 4).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured (a) BFD and (b) response time under 70V square pulses.

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