Abstract

A new approach for the generation of single-cycle mid-infrared pulses without complicated control systems is proposed, which is based on direct coherent synthesis of two idlers generated by difference frequency generation (DFG) processes. It is found that the waveform of synthesized pulses is mainly determined by the spectra superposition, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) difference, the relative timing and the chirp ratio between the idlers. The influences of these parameters on the synthesized waveform are also numerically calculated and analyzed via second-order autocorrelation, which offers general guidelines for the waveform optimization. The single-cycle synthesized mid-infrared pulses, which are centered at 4233 nm with the spectrum spanning from 3000 nm to 7000 nm, are achieved by carefully optimizing these parameters. The single-cycle mid-infrared laser source presents the possibility of investigating and controlling the strong field light-matter interaction.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, A. C. Muir, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Coherent supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber with all-normal group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Express19(6), 4902–4907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. G. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, “Generation of two-color femtosecond pulses by self-synchronizing Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett.26(22), 1806–1808 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “Single-Cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

T. W. Hänsch, “A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun.80(1), 71–75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. A. Baumagartner and R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.15(6), 432–444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

Assion, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, P. K.

Baumagartner, R. A.

R. A. Baumagartner and R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.15(6), 432–444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

Blaga, C. I.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

R. A. Baumagartner and R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.15(6), 432–444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Catoire, F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chalus, O.

Chen, M. C.

Chirla, R.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christov, P.

P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “Single-Cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Colosimo, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doumy, G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eggert, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X. J.

Ferrari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frei, H.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, “Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett.29(6), 632–634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gale, B. J. S.

Grebing, C.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grisham, M. E.

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanke, T.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch, “A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun.80(1), 71–75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holman, K. W.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, L. E.

Hu, X. H.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jost, J. D.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kakehata, M.

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett.33(18), 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “Single-Cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kobayashi, T.

X. J. Fang and T. Kobayashi, “Self-stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of an optical parametric amplifier verified with a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.29(11), 1282–1284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

Koke, S.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Kulander, K. C.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leburn, C. G.

Leeuwen, K. A. H. V.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. M.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lohss, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lucchini, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, D.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

March, A. M.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. D. D.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCracken, R. A.

Mosley, P. J.

Muir, A. C.

Muller, H. G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett.33(18), 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “Single-Cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J. L.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, D. T.

Rocca, J. J.

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sell, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, B.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, R. K.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolarski, M.

Stagira, S.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J. H.

Takada, H.

Tate, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Vozzi, C.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, L. R.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z. Y.

Wheeler, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshitomi, D.

Zhang, Z. G.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, S. Foreman, T. M. Fortier, J. L. Hall, K. W. Holman, D. J. Jones, J. D. Jost, H. C. Kapteyn, K. A. H. V. Leeuwen, L. S. Ma, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Peng, and R. K. Shelton, “Phase-coherent synthesis of optical frequencies and waveforms,” Appl. Phys. B74(Suppl.), S27–S34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Baumagartner and R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.15(6), 432–444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. W. Hänsch, “A proposed sub-femtosecond pulse synthesizer using separate phase-locked laser oscillators,” Opt. Commun.80(1), 71–75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

J. H. Sun and D. T. Reid, “Coherent ultrafast pulse synthesis between an optical parametric oscillator and a laser,” Opt. Lett.34(6), 854–856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett.33(18), 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. G. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, “Generation of two-color femtosecond pulses by self-synchronizing Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett.26(22), 1806–1808 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, “Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett.29(6), 632–634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. J. Fang and T. Kobayashi, “Self-stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of an optical parametric amplifier verified with a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.29(11), 1282–1284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kobayashi, D. Yoshitomi, M. Kakehata, H. Takada, and K. Torizuka, “Long-term optical phase locking between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2496–2498 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Coherent synthesis using carrier-envelope phase-controlled pulses from a dual-color femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1396–1398 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(13), 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, “High harmonic generation at long wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(25), 5270–5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “Single-Cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 4th Edition (Academic Press, 2007).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of coherent synthesis for single-cycle mid-infrared pulses generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of the input pulse and output pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal wavelength region depends on the poling period of PPLN in the case of the perfect phase matching with the fixed pump wavelength. The signal covers 1309–1388 nm with the poling period of 25.5 μm (dashed line), whereas the signal covers 1374–1441 nm with the poling period of 27.5 μm (dot-dashed line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the crystal length and the power density in the DFG 1 (a) and DFG 2 (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectra of two idlers from DFGs. The intensity of idler 1 is normalized to that of the idler 2. Inset: the corresponding linear values of both idlers intensities; (b) Spectrum of the synthesized pulse centered at 4600 nm. Inset: the temporal profile of synthesized pulses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Second-order autocorrelation curves of the synthesized pulse varied with distinct parent pulses. Suppose that one centered at 4400 nm, the other is set to be 4400 nm in (a), 5000 nm in (b), and 5600 nm in (c), respectively. The intensity autocorrelation curves of synthesized pulses are shown in panels (a), (b) and (c), while panels (d), (e) and (f) exhibit the corresponding interferometric autocorrelations, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The evolution of synthesized pulses for various phase difference as follows: 0 in (a), 0.8π in (b), 0.9π in (c), and π in (d) without relative timing as well as initial chirps. The intensity autocorrelations of synthesized pulses are shown between the parent pulses coincident with our system 4400 nm and 5000 nm, respectively (solid lines) and different from our system, centered at 4400 nm and 4500 nm, respectively (dashed lines).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intensity autocorrelations of synthesized pulses with altering the relative timing and keeping other two parameters unaltered. (a) Δt = 0, the duration is 18.4 fs; (b) Δt = 60 fs, the duration is 18.4 fs; (c) Δt = 65 fs, the duration is 19.8 fs; (d) Δt = 100 fs, the duration is 21.2 fs.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Interferometric autocorrelations of combined pulses are illustrated with the varied chirp ratio between the idlers. The chirp ratio is assumed 0 in (a), 1 in (b), 3 in (c), 5 in (d), 6 in (e), and 7 in (f), respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optimization of the synthesized pulse in our system. (a) The intensity autocorrelation of the optimal pulse and (b) the corresponding combined spectrum. Inset: The profile of optimal pulse in the temporal domain. The design of the correlative parameters is as follows: the relative timing Δt = 9 fs, the difference of CEPs ΔΦ = −0.82 rad, and the chirp ratio is 6. These parameters determine the waveform of synthesized pulses and shift the center wavelength of combined pulses.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A(z,t) z + i β 2 2 2 A(z,t) t 2 iγ | A(z,t) | 2 A(z,t)=0,
f I = f P f S =( n 1 f rep + f CEO )( n 2 f rep + f CEO )=( n 1 n 2 ) f rep ,
E S z + n S c E S t + α S E S =i ω S d eff n S c cos 2 β S E I * E P exp(iΔkz) E I z + n I c E I t + α I E I =i ω I d eff n I c cos 2 β I E S * E P exp(iΔkz) E P z + n P c E P t + α P E P =i ω P d eff n P c cos 2 β P E S E I exp(iΔkz),
I(τ)= + I(t) I(tτ)dt,
I(τ)= + | (E(t)+E(tτ)) 2 | 2 dt,

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