Abstract

We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G.-B. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Kersey, “A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(3), 291–317 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Zhang and X. Bao, “Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system,” Opt. Express16(14), 10240–10247 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3243–3249 (2010).
  5. Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. P. Zhou, Z. Qin, W. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensing with time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express20(12), 13138–13145 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Eickhoff and R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.39(9), 693–695 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Froggatt and J. Moore, “High-spatial-resolution distributed strain measurement in optical fiber with rayleigh scatter,” Appl. Opt.37(10), 1735–1740 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Soller, S. Kreger, D. Gifford, M. Wolfe, and M. Froggatt, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry for single- and multi-mode avionics fiber-optics applications,” IEEE in Avionics Fiber-Optics and Photonics, 38–39 (2006).
  12. S. T. Kreger, D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, B. J. Soller, and M. S. Wolfe, “High resolution distributed strain or temperature measurements in single- and multi-mode fiber using swept-wavelength interfeometry,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThE42.
  13. R. G. Duncan, B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, S. T. Kreger, R. J. Seeley, A. K. Sang, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “OFDR-based distributed sensing and fault detection for single- and multi-mode avionics fiber-optics,” presented at the Joint Conference on Aging Aircraft (2007).
  14. http://www.lunatechnologies.com/applications/OFDR-Based-Distributed-Sensing.pdf
  15. S. Venkatesh and W. V. Sorin, “Phase noise consideration in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1694–1700 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 2007).
  17. J. P. Vonder Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(7), 1131–1141 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies,” Opt. Express13(2), 666–674 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. D. Moore and R. R. McLeod, “Correction of sampling errors due to laser tuning rate fluctuations in swept-wavelength interferometry,” Opt. Express16(17), 13139–13149 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, Z. Qin, W. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensing with time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express20(12), 13138–13145 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G.-B. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. P. Vonder Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(7), 1131–1141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. D. Kersey, “A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(3), 291–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Venkatesh and W. V. Sorin, “Phase noise consideration in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1694–1700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. Eickhoff and R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.39(9), 693–695 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Bao, X.

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, Z. Qin, W. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensing with time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express20(12), 13138–13145 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and X. Bao, “Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system,” Opt. Express16(14), 10240–10247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X. Y.

Barnoski, M. K.

Chen, L.

D. P. Zhou, Z. Qin, W. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensing with time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express20(12), 13138–13145 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. A.

Eickhoff, W.

W. Eickhoff and R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.39(9), 693–695 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Froggatt, M.

Froggatt, M. E.

Gifford, D. K.

Gisin, N.

J. P. Vonder Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(7), 1131–1141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, S. M.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, “A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(3), 291–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.-S.

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G.-B. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.-N.

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G.-B. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Lu, Y. L.

McLeod, R. R.

Moore, E. D.

Moore, J.

Mussi, G.

J. P. Vonder Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(7), 1131–1141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Passy, R.

J. P. Vonder Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(7), 1131–1141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z.

D. P. Zhou, Z. Qin, W. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensing with time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express20(12), 13138–13145 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soller, B. J.

Song, G.-B.

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G.-B. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, W. V.

S. Venkatesh and W. V. Sorin, “Phase noise consideration in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1694–1700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

W. Eickhoff and R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.39(9), 693–695 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

S. Venkatesh and W. V. Sorin, “Phase noise consideration in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1694–1700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vonder Weid, J. P.

J. P. Vonder Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(7), 1131–1141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, M. S.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, D. P.

Zhu, T.

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3243–3249 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Eickhoff and R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.39(9), 693–695 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eng. Structures (1)

H.-N. Li, D.-S. Li, and G.-B. Song, “Recent applications of fiber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering,” Eng. Structures26(11), 1647–1657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3243–3249 (2010).

S. Venkatesh and W. V. Sorin, “Phase noise consideration in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1694–1700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Vonder Weid, R. Passy, G. Mussi, and N. Gisin, “On the characterization of optical fiber network components with optical frequency domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(7), 1131–1141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, “A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.2(3), 291–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 2007).

B. Soller, S. Kreger, D. Gifford, M. Wolfe, and M. Froggatt, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry for single- and multi-mode avionics fiber-optics applications,” IEEE in Avionics Fiber-Optics and Photonics, 38–39 (2006).

S. T. Kreger, D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, B. J. Soller, and M. S. Wolfe, “High resolution distributed strain or temperature measurements in single- and multi-mode fiber using swept-wavelength interfeometry,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThE42.

R. G. Duncan, B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, S. T. Kreger, R. J. Seeley, A. K. Sang, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “OFDR-based distributed sensing and fault detection for single- and multi-mode avionics fiber-optics,” presented at the Joint Conference on Aging Aircraft (2007).

http://www.lunatechnologies.com/applications/OFDR-Based-Distributed-Sensing.pdf

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the OFDR system. The main interferometer is a modified fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. An auxiliary Michelson interferometer is used as a clock signal to trigger the DAQ. C1, C2 and C3 are 2 × 2 couplers, where C1 is a 1:99 coupler and C2 and C3 are 50:50 couplers. TLS is tunable laser source. PC is a polarization controller, BPD is a balanced photo-detector and DAQ is a data acquisition card. PZT 1 is at 10 km and PZT 2 is at 10.67 km.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the vibration position and frequency measurement by the OFDR

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rayleigh backscattering in a spatial domain. The reflectivity of Rayleigh backscattering is about −80 dB. The first Fresnel reflection at 10 km is caused by an APC connection and its reflectivity is −66 dB. The second Fresnel reflection at 11.95 km is from an open APC connector and its reflectivity is −59 dB. The red box is the sliding window with a length of Δx to select local RB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Analyzed cross-correlation between local RBs in the non-vibrated state and vibrated state: (a) not at the vibration position, (b) at the vibration position. A “non-similar level” is number of points beyond a set threshold.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured distributed “non-similar level” as a function of fiber length. A voltage of the PZT is (a) 1 v, (b) 1.5 v. A striking change (for the “non-similar level” beyond 20 points) can be used to locate a position of the vibration and any small change on other locations can be shielded. The length of local RB Δx is 5 m, which determines a spatial resolution of the located vibration. A “non-similar level” at a PZT’s voltage 1.5 v is higher than a PZT’s voltage 1 v. A “non-similar level” is in proportional to a vibration intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Analysis of the cross-correlation between the local RB non-vibrated state and vibrated state. (a)-(f) is for a PZT driven voltage of 1 v with a sine waveform, (g) and (h) have the same PZT driven voltage (i.e. 1 v) but using a square waveform and triangular waveform, respectively. (a) f m = 50 Hz, Δf = 1 Hz and m max = 200, (b) f m = 200 Hz, Δf = 1 Hz and m max = 400, (c) f m = 1000 Hz, Δf = 2 Hz and m max = 800, (d) f m = 1000Hz, Δf = 4 Hz and m max = 800, (e) f m = 2Hz, Δf = 0.5Hz and m max = 400, (f) is the local zoom of (e), (g) f m = 50 Hz, Δf = 1 Hz and m max = 200, (h) f m = 50 Hz, Δf = 1 Hz and m max = 200.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Measured distributed “non-similar level” as a function of a fiber length with two vibration events. The PZT 1 and PZT 2 are located at 10 km and 10.67 km and are applied by a 1 v sine waveform vibration with a frequency 97 Hz and 57 Hz, respectively. Two striking changes can be used to locate two positions of the vibration events. (b) (c) Analysis of the cross-correlations between the local RB non-vibrated and vibrated states: (b) a location of the fiber segment is between the position of PZT 1 and PZT 2 and (c) the location of the fiber segment is after the PZT 2. In (b), there is only one frequency component of 97 Hz, but in (c), there are many frequency components that contain a sum frequency of 154 Hz and a difference frequency of 40 Hz from two vibration frequencies applied on two PZTs (i.e. PTZ 1 and 2). A vibration frequency 57 Hz for the second event can be estimated.

Equations (9)

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E r (t)= E 0 exp{ j[2π f 0 t+πγ t 2 ] } ,
E s (t)= R(τ) E 0 exp{ j[2π f 0 (tτ)+πγ (tτ) 2 δsin2π f m t] }.
exp(jδsin2π f m t)= n= n=+ J n (δ)exp(jn2π f m t) ,
exp(jδsin2π f m t)= J 0 (δ)+ J 1 (δ)exp(j2π f m t) J 1 (δ)exp(j2π f m t).
I v (t)=2 R(τ) E 0 2 { J 0 (δ)cos[2π f b t+ φ c ]+ J 1 (δ)cos[(2π( f b f m )t+ φ c ] J 1 (δ)cos[2π( f b + f m )t+ φ c ] },
I s (t)=2 R(τ) E 0 2 cos[2π f b t+ φ c ].
Δx=NΔz,
Δz= c 2nΔF ,
f m =mΔf,

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