Abstract

A compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N2O and CO has been developed with a 4.5 μm quantum cascade laser (QCL). An in-line acetylene (C2H2) gas reference cell allows for continuous monitoring of the sensor drift and calibration in rapidly changing field environments and thereby allows for open-path detection at high precision and stability. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is used to detect simultaneously both the second and fourth harmonic absorption spectra with an optimized dual modulation amplitude scheme. Multi-harmonic spectra containing atmospheric N2O, CO, and the reference C2H2 signals are fit in real-time (10 Hz) by combining a software-based lock-in amplifier with a computationally fast numerical model for WMS. The sensor consumes ~50 W of power and has a mass of ~15 kg. Precision of 0.15 ppbv N2O and 0.36 ppbv CO at 10 Hz under laboratory conditions was demonstrated. The sensor has been deployed for extended periods in the field. Simultaneous N2O and CO measurements distinguished between natural and fossil fuel combustion sources of N2O, an important greenhouse gas with poorly quantified emissions in space and time.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Defarge, A. Grossel, P. Alberic, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere-atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 ?m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, “Vertical cavity laser hygrometer for the National Science Foundation Gulfstream-V aircraft,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 115(D20), D20309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Ravishankara, J. S. Daniel, and R. W. Portmann, “Nitrous oxide N2O: the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century,” Science 326(5949), 123–125 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Neftel, C. Flechard, C. Ammann, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, and K. Zeyer, “Experimental assessment of N2O background fluxes in grassland systems,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 59(3), 470–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. P. Lima, H. Vargas, A. Miklos, M. Angelmahr, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 and N2O using quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 279–284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1052–1061 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

2001

P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 40(6), 783–793 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dick, U. Skiba, and J. Wilson, “The effect of rainfall on NO and N2O emissions from Ugandan agroforest soils,” Phyton (Austria) 41, 73–80 (2001).

1999

1995

1993

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 26(3), 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. A. Whitby and E. R. Altwicker, “Acetylene in the atmosphere: Sources, representative ambient concentrations and ratios to other hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 12(6-7), 1289–1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1962

Alberic, P.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Defarge, A. Grossel, P. Alberic, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere-atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altwicker, E. R.

R. A. Whitby and E. R. Altwicker, “Acetylene in the atmosphere: Sources, representative ambient concentrations and ratios to other hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 12(6-7), 1289–1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 ?m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ammann, C.

A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Neftel, C. Flechard, C. Ammann, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, and K. Zeyer, “Experimental assessment of N2O background fluxes in grassland systems,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 59(3), 470–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Angelmahr, M.

J. P. Lima, H. Vargas, A. Miklos, M. Angelmahr, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 and N2O using quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 279–284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Baer, D. S.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartalini, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Broeckx, L. S.

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burba, G.

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
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Burch, D. E.

Butler, J. H.

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
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Carras, M.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Catoire, V.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Defarge, A. Grossel, P. Alberic, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere-atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Defarge, A. Grossel, P. Alberic, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere-atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 ?m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
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A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Neftel, C. Flechard, C. Ammann, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, and K. Zeyer, “Experimental assessment of N2O background fluxes in grassland systems,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 59(3), 470–482 (2007).
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Cools, J.

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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A. R. Ravishankara, J. S. Daniel, and R. W. Portmann, “Nitrous oxide N2O: the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century,” Science 326(5949), 123–125 (2009).
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S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Decarpenterie, T.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumelie, N.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Durry, G.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
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A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Neftel, C. Flechard, C. Ammann, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, and K. Zeyer, “Experimental assessment of N2O background fluxes in grassland systems,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 59(3), 470–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flechard, C.

A. Neftel, C. Flechard, C. Ammann, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, and K. Zeyer, “Experimental assessment of N2O background fluxes in grassland systems,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 59(3), 470–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Gioli, B.

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
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Gogo, S.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Defarge, A. Grossel, P. Alberic, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere-atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Grossel, A.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Defarge, A. Grossel, P. Alberic, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere-atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guimbaud, C.

C. Guimbaud, V. Catoire, S. Gogo, C. Robert, M. Chartier, F. Laggoun-Defarge, A. Grossel, P. Alberic, L. Pomathiod, B. Nicoullaud, and G. Richard, “A portable infrared laser spectrometer for flux measurements of trace gases at the geosphere-atmosphere interface,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(7), 075601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

Hangauer, A.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 ?m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Hastings, S.

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
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J. P. Lima, H. Vargas, A. Miklos, M. Angelmahr, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 and N2O using quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 279–284 (2006).
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S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Janssens, I. A.

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
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Jeffries, J. B.

Joly, L.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
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Kebabian, P. L.

Khan, M. A.

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Komissarov, A.

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
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Schilt, S.

Silver, J. A.

M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, “Vertical cavity laser hygrometer for the National Science Foundation Gulfstream-V aircraft,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 115(D20), D20309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, “Simple Dense-pattern Optical Multipass Cells,” Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6545–6556 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singleton, E. B.

Sivco, D. L.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skiba, U.

J. Dick, U. Skiba, and J. Wilson, “The effect of rainfall on NO and N2O emissions from Ugandan agroforest soils,” Phyton (Austria) 41, 73–80 (2001).

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spirig, C.

A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starr, G.

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strzoda, R.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 ?m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tao, L.

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

Thomas, X.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tuzson, B.

A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vallon, R.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vargas, H.

J. P. Lima, H. Vargas, A. Miklos, M. Angelmahr, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 and N2O using quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 279–284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verlinden, M. S.

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wahlen, S.

A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitby, R. A.

R. A. Whitby and E. R. Altwicker, “Acetylene in the atmosphere: Sources, representative ambient concentrations and ratios to other hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 12(6-7), 1289–1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

Wilson, J.

J. Dick, U. Skiba, and J. Wilson, “The effect of rainfall on NO and N2O emissions from Ugandan agroforest soils,” Phyton (Austria) 41, 73–80 (2001).

Xu, L.

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

Zaldei, A.

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeninari, V.

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeyer, K.

A. Neftel, C. Flechard, C. Ammann, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, and K. Zeyer, “Experimental assessment of N2O background fluxes in grassland systems,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 59(3), 470–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zona, D.

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zondlo, M. A.

L. Tao, K. Sun, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan, and M. A. Zondlo, “Current and frequency modulation characteristics for continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers at 9.06 ?m,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1358–1360 (2012).
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M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, “Vertical cavity laser hygrometer for the National Science Foundation Gulfstream-V aircraft,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 115(D20), D20309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Agric. For. Meteorol.

A. Neftel, C. Ammann, C. Fischer, C. Spirig, F. Conen, L. Emmenegger, B. Tuzson, and S. Wahlen, “N2O exchange over managed grassland: Application of a quantum cascade laser spectrometer for micrometeorological flux measurements,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 150(6), 775–785 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.

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[CrossRef]

D. McDermitt, G. Burba, L. Xu, T. Anderson, A. Komissarov, B. Riensche, J. Schedlbauer, G. Starr, D. Zona, W. Oechel, S. Oberbauer, and S. Hastings, “A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 391–405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 ?m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Lima, H. Vargas, A. Miklos, M. Angelmahr, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of NO2 and N2O using quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 279–284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 85(2-3), 223–229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Joly, T. Decarpenterie, N. Dumelie, X. Thomas, I. Mappe-Fogaing, D. Mammez, R. Vallon, G. Durry, B. Parvitte, M. Carras, X. Marcadet, and V. Zeninari, “Development of a versatile atmospheric N2O sensor based on quantum cascade laser technology at 4.5 ?m,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 103(3), 717–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

R. A. Whitby and E. R. Altwicker, “Acetylene in the atmosphere: Sources, representative ambient concentrations and ratios to other hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 12(6-7), 1289–1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences Discuss.

D. Zona, I. A. Janssens, M. S. Verlinden, L. S. Broeckx, J. Cools, B. Gioli, A. Zaldei, and R. Ceulemans, “Impact of extreme precipitation and water table change on N2O fluxes in a bio-energy poplar plantation,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 8(2), 2057–2092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.]

M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, “Vertical cavity laser hygrometer for the National Science Foundation Gulfstream-V aircraft,” J. Geophys. Res., [Atmos.] 115(D20), D20309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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J. Dick, U. Skiba, and J. Wilson, “The effect of rainfall on NO and N2O emissions from Ugandan agroforest soils,” Phyton (Austria) 41, 73–80 (2001).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison between analytical and numerical models.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characterization of QCL tuning range on top of the detectable absorption lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the sensor setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photo of the N2O/CO sensor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dual modulation amplitude laser scan and the corresponding 2f signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated spectral inferences between elevated CO and the ambient N2O signal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of measured N2O/CO spectra (2f, 4f) at ambient conditions with/without the C2H2 reference cell.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Real-time spectral fittings for the 2nd and 4th harmonic signals of N2O and C2H2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Example of 20 Hz N2O raw data and its distribution histogram. (b) Allan deviation plot of N2O and CO.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Field tests of the C2H2 inline reference signal and its effect on normalizing the ambient N2O concentration. (b) Allan deviation plot of field measured N2O.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Measured N2O concentration during precipitation. (b) diurnal cycle of CO concentration.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Peaks of N2O and CO. (b) correlation for the increase of CO/N2O concentrations.

Equations (6)

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i(t)= i 0 + i s f s t+ i m cos(2π f m t)
ν(t)= ν 0 +η( f s ) i s f s t+η( f m ) i m cos[2π f m t+ϕ( f m )]
I(t)= A 0 + A 1 i(t)+ A 2 i (t) 2 + A 3 i (t) 3
D(t)=χI(t)exp[ i x i S i L i ψ i (T,P,ν(t)) ]
R(t)=sin(n f m 2πt+φ)
m= ν m Δν = η( f m ) i m Δν

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