Abstract

A metal-insulator-metal (MIM)-based four-port quasi-circulator consisting of four bus waveguides and eight narrow inside/outside slits is proposed without using nonreciprocity. Once the input port is defined, only a specific output port could be obtained by proper the design of parameters of the waveguides and slits. Simulation results based on finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method demonstrate that the transmittance at the center wavelength of the appropriate output port can reach 0.63 while those of the other two output ports are lower than 0.06. Through adjusting the slits spacing or optimizing the insulator material in the slits, the isolation of the circulator could be further improved with a slight sacrifice of the transmission. Such structure could also be used for wavelength demultiplexing with the center wavelength determined by the length of the bus waveguides and slits.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012 (5)

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, and Y. H. Guo, “Wavelength demultiplexing structure based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide,” J. Opt.14(7), 075001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Toroghi and P. G. Kik, “Cascaded field enhancement in plasmon resonant dimer nanoantennas compatible with two-dimensional nanofabrication methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(1), 013116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2009 (2)

Q. Zhang, X. G. Huang, X. S. Lin, J. Tao, and X. P. Jin, “A subwavelength coupler-type MIM optical filter,” Opt. Express17(9), 7549–7554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express16(4), 2676–2684 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Lin and X. G. Huang, “Tooth-shaped plasmonic waveguide filters with nanometeric sizes,” Opt. Lett.33(23), 2874–2876 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Steele, Z. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express14(12), 5664–5670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

C. Janke, J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2357–2359 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, “Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains,” Phys. Rev. B70(12), 125429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Kagami, H. Ito, G. Sugimoto, and Y. Miyazaki, “Simple structural quasi-optical circulator composed of tapering and bending waveguides,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part II Electron.83(7), 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolivar, P. H.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brinkmeyer, E.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chappell, S.

Chichkov, B. N.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, C. L.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “A waveguide slit array antenna fabricated with subwavelength periodic grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eich, M.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliel, E. R.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Errington, R.

Evlyukhin, A. B.

Fakhraai, Z.

M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, G. W.

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, “Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains,” Phys. Rev. B70(12), 125429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, D. C.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gbur, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Y. H.

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, and Y. H. Guo, “Wavelength demultiplexing structure based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide,” J. Opt.14(7), 075001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, H. Y. Li, and X. Luo, “A plasmonic splitter based on slot cavity,” Opt. Express19(15), 13831–13838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, and Y. H. Guo, “Wavelength demultiplexing structure based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide,” J. Opt.14(7), 075001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, H. Y. Li, and X. Luo, “A plasmonic splitter based on slot cavity,” Opt. Express19(15), 13831–13838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooft, G. W.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, F. F.

Huang, C.

C. Huang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “A waveguide slit array antenna fabricated with subwavelength periodic grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

Ip, S.

M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, G. Sugimoto, and Y. Miyazaki, “Simple structural quasi-optical circulator composed of tapering and bending waveguides,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part II Electron.83(7), 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jalas, D.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janke, C.

Jin, X. P.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

Kagami, M.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, G. Sugimoto, and Y. Miyazaki, “Simple structural quasi-optical circulator composed of tapering and bending waveguides,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part II Electron.83(7), 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

S. Toroghi and P. G. Kik, “Cascaded field enhancement in plasmon resonant dimer nanoantennas compatible with two-dimensional nanofabrication methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(1), 013116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, R.

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kofke, M. J.

M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krause, M.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

Kuzmin, N.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. Y.

Lim, Y.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. S.

Liu, Z. W.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, B.

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, and Y. H. Guo, “Wavelength demultiplexing structure based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide,” J. Opt.14(7), 075001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, H. Y. Li, and X. Luo, “A plasmonic splitter based on slot cavity,” Opt. Express19(15), 13831–13838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

Luo, X. G.

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “A waveguide slit array antenna fabricated with subwavelength periodic grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, D. R.

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melloni, A.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, Y.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, G. Sugimoto, and Y. Miyazaki, “Simple structural quasi-optical circulator composed of tapering and bending waveguides,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part II Electron.83(7), 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Njoh, K.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, W.

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, and Y. H. Guo, “Wavelength demultiplexing structure based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide,” J. Opt.14(7), 075001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, H. Y. Li, and X. Luo, “A plasmonic splitter based on slot cavity,” Opt. Express19(15), 13831–13838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Passinger, S.

Petrov, A.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, C.

Renner, H.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Requicha, A. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivas, J. G.

Schouten, H. F.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P.

Steele, J. M.

Stepanov, A. L.

Sugimoto, G.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, G. Sugimoto, and Y. Miyazaki, “Simple structural quasi-optical circulator composed of tapering and bending waveguides,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part II Electron.83(7), 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Summers, H. D.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tao, J.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toroghi, S.

S. Toroghi and P. G. Kik, “Cascaded field enhancement in plasmon resonant dimer nanoantennas compatible with two-dimensional nanofabrication methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(1), 013116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vanwolleghem, M.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visser, T. D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldeck, D. H.

M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. C.

M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. T.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Weber, W. H.

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, “Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains,” Phys. Rev. B70(12), 125429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. H.

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, and Y. H. Guo, “Wavelength demultiplexing structure based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide,” J. Opt.14(7), 075001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, H. Y. Li, and X. Luo, “A plasmonic splitter based on slot cavity,” Opt. Express19(15), 13831–13838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L. S.

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, and Y. H. Guo, “Wavelength demultiplexing structure based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide,” J. Opt.14(7), 075001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express20(22), 24348–24355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Guo, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. H. Wen, Z. Guo, H. Y. Li, and X. Luo, “A plasmonic splitter based on slot cavity,” Opt. Express19(15), 13831–13838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, H. X.

Yu, Z. F.

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, Y. H.

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z. P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 023104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Toroghi and P. G. Kik, “Cascaded field enhancement in plasmon resonant dimer nanoantennas compatible with two-dimensional nanofabrication methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(1), 013116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “A waveguide slit array antenna fabricated with subwavelength periodic grooves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, Y. H. Zhao, D. C. Gan, C. T. Wang, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part II Electron. (1)

M. Kagami, H. Ito, G. Sugimoto, and Y. Miyazaki, “Simple structural quasi-optical circulator composed of tapering and bending waveguides,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part II Electron.83(7), 31–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, Y. H. Guo, and X. G. Luo, “Spectral characteristics of plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides with a tilted groove,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

K. H. Wen, L. S. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, Z. Guo, and Y. H. Guo, “Wavelength demultiplexing structure based on plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguide,” J. Opt.14(7), 075001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Weber and G. W. Ford, “Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticle chains,” Phys. Rev. B70(12), 125429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

S. H. Fan, R. Baets, A. Petrov, Z. F. Yu, J. D. Joannopoulos, W. Freude, A. Melloni, M. Popović, M. Vanwolleghem, D. Jalas, M. Eich, M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, and C. R. Doerr, “Comment on ‘Nonreciprocal light propagation in a silicon photonic circuit’,” Science335(6064), 729–733 (2012), arXiv:1110.2647 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Proposed scheme of the four-port circulator, (b) real part of the effective index, and (c) SPPs propagation direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of the propose schemes with (a) double silts, (b) only inside slit, and (c) only outside slit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric field intensity distributions at the wavelength 437.6nm: (a) input: Port1, output: Port4, (b) input: Port2, output: Port1, (c) input: Port3, output: Port2, and (d) input: Port4, output: Port3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure with air-outside and SiO2-inside slits: (a) transmission spectrum, and (b) electric field intensity distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra for Port2, Port3 and Port4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electric field intensity distributions at the wavelength 463.3nm: (a) input: Port1, output: Port4, (b) input: Port2, output: Port1, (c) input: Port3, output: Port2, and (d) input: Port4, output: Port3.

Equations (4)

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tanh( 1 2 k i d )= ε i ε i k m 2 ( n eff k m ) 2 ε m ε m k i 2 ( n eff k i ) 2
{ θ 1 - θ 2 = π 2 θ 1 = 2π λ ( n bus L bus + n bus d s + n i L slit )= 2m+1 2 π θ 2 = 2π λ ( n bus L bus + n o L slit )=mπ m =1,2,3...
{ θ 1 ' = 2π λ n bus L 1 =mπ θ 2 ' = 2π λ n bus L 2 = 2m-1 2 π m =1,2,3...
{ E 1 in = E 2 out + E 4 out E 2 out = α 2 E 1 in ( 1+βexp( i( n i L slit + n bus d s - n o L slit ) ) ) E 4 out = α 4 E 1 in ( 1+βexp( i( n i L slit + n bus d s - n o L slit ) ) ) E 3 out = α 3 E 2 out ( 1+βexp( i( n i L slit + n bus d s - n o L slit ) ) )

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