Abstract

Metamaterial-based perfect absorbers promise many applications. Perfect absorption is characterized by the complete suppression of transmission and reflection and complete dissipation of the incident energy by the absorptive meta-atoms. A certain absorption spectrum is usually assigned to a bulk medium and serves as a signature of the respective material. Here we show how to use graphene flakes as building blocks for perfect absorbers. Then, an absorbing meta-atom only consists of a molecular monolayer placed at an appropriate distance from a metallic ground plate. We show that the functionality of such device is intuitively and correctly explained by a Fabry-Perot model.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg. 17, 150–157 (1962).
  2. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically-thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5, 5855–5863 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Manjavacas, P. Nordlander, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Plasmon blockade in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 6, 1724–1731 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  14. J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  15. E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Rana, “Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 91–99 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 195446 (2011).
  19. P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nature Photonics 6, 259–264 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120, (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. Wu and G. Shvets, “Design of metamaterial surfaces with broad-band absorbance,” Opt. Lett. 37, 308–310 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. D. Chong, Li Ge, Hui Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 081405(R) (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. W. Salisbury, “Absorbent body for electromagnetic waves,” US Patent 2599944 (1952).
  36. H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20, 7165–7172 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  38. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 2005).
  39. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Greens functions and guided surface waves on graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  40. L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical Far-Infrared Properties of a Graphene Monolayer and Multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  41. E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  42. V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte “Conductivity Magneto-optical in Graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter,  19, 026222 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  43. L. Li, “New formulation of the fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2758–2767 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (10)

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Manjavacas, P. Nordlander, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Plasmon blockade in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 6, 1724–1731 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120, (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 081405(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu and G. Shvets, “Design of metamaterial surfaces with broad-band absorbance,” Opt. Lett. 37, 308–310 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20, 7165–7172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (11)

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nature Photonics 6, 259–264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically-thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. D. Chong, Li Ge, Hui Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rana, “Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 91–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical Far-Infrared Properties of a Graphene Monolayer and Multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte “Conductivity Magneto-optical in Graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter,  19, 026222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Greens functions and guided surface waves on graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1962 (1)

H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg. 17, 150–157 (1962).

1954 (1)

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 195446 (2011).

Abdelsalam, M.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alonso-Gonzlez, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Alù, A.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically-thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bartlett, P. N.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehm, H. P.

H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg. 17, 150–157 (1962).

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borisov, A. G.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camara, N.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cao, H.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Hui

Y. D. Chong, Li Ge, Hui Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carbotte, J. P.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte “Conductivity Magneto-optical in Graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter,  19, 026222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castro Neto, A. H.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Centeno, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20, 7165–7172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, P.-Y.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically-thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, Y.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, Y. D.

Y. D. Chong, Li Ge, Hui Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, D. R.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, J.

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clauss, A.

H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg. 17, 150–157 (1962).

Conrad, E. H.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das Sarma, S.

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Abajo, F. J. G.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Manjavacas, P. Nordlander, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Plasmon blockade in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 6, 1724–1731 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Heer, W. A.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dikin, D. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominguez, G.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Dommett, G. H. B.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elorza, A. Z.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falkovsky, L. A.

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical Far-Infrared Properties of a Graphene Monolayer and Multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fei, Z.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

First, P. N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, G. O.

H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg. 17, 150–157 (1962).

Fogler, M. M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 081405(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 195446 (2011).

Ge, L.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, Li

Y. D. Chong, Li Ge, Hui Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Godignon, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guinea, F.

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 081405(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 195446 (2011).

Gusynin, V. P.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte “Conductivity Magneto-optical in Graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter,  19, 026222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Greens functions and guided surface waves on graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hass, J.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hofmann, U.

H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg. 17, 150–157 (1962).

Horng, J.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huth, F.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hwang, E. H.

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jablan, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, J.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nature Photonics 6, 259–264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kohlhaas, K. M.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koppens, F. H. L.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nature Photonics 6, 259–264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, C. N.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Li, L.

Li, T.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120, (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, S.-N.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manjavacas, A.

A. Manjavacas, P. Nordlander, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Plasmon blockade in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 6, 1724–1731 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marchenkov, A. N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, M.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 081405(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 195446 (2011).

Mayou, D.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLeod, A. S.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milder, A.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naud, C.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuner, B.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, S. T.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. Yu.

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 081405(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 195446 (2011).

Noh, H.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

A. Manjavacas, P. Nordlander, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Plasmon blockade in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 6, 1724–1731 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osmond, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120, (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peres, N. M. R.

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pershoguba, S. S.

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical Far-Infrared Properties of a Graphene Monolayer and Multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pesquera, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Piner, R. D.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramani, S.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rana, F.

F. Rana, “Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 91–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reiten, M. T.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rodin, A. S.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ruoff, R. S.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salisbury, W. W.

W. W. Salisbury, “Absorbent body for electromagnetic waves,” US Patent 2599944 (1952).

Savoy, S.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharapov, S. G.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte “Conductivity Magneto-optical in Graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter,  19, 026222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu and G. Shvets, “Design of metamaterial surfaces with broad-band absorbance,” Opt. Lett. 37, 308–310 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nature Photonics 6, 259–264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Stach, E. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankovich, S.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, Li Ge, Hui Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawara, Y.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nature Photonics 6, 259–264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Teperik, T. V.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thiemens, M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Thongrattanasiri, S.

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vakil, A.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wan, W.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watts, C. M.

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120, (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu and G. Shvets, “Design of metamaterial surfaces with broad-band absorbance,” Opt. Lett. 37, 308–310 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 2005).

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. M.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zimney, E. J.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zollars, B.

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (3)

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically-thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Manjavacas, P. Nordlander, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Plasmon blockade in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 6, 1724–1731 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, OP98–OP120, (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Rana, “Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 91–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Greens functions and guided surface waves on graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte “Conductivity Magneto-optical in Graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter,  19, 026222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnology (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature 442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics (1)

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nature Photonics 6, 259–264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (9)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 195446 (2011).

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical Far-Infrared Properties of a Graphene Monolayer and Multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 081405(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, Li Ge, Hui Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Naturforschg. (1)

H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg. 17, 150–157 (1962).

Other (2)

W. W. Salisbury, “Absorbent body for electromagnetic waves,” US Patent 2599944 (1952).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the graphene micro-ribbon perfect absorber. The geometrical parameters of the proposed structure are: tF = 1 μm, d = 1 – 100 μm, WGR = 1 μm and P = 2 μm. The inset shows the honeycomb microscopic structure of the graphene layer arranged as micro-ribbons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the relative permittivity of a 1nm thick graphene sheet as function of frequency as well as chemical potential. (c) Absorption as a function of frequency (ω) and dielectric thickness (d) for a graphene micro-ribbon perfect absorber with chemical potential μc = 100meV at normal incidence. (d) Absorption as a function of frequency and chemical potential for graphene micro-ribbons perfect absorber with d = 4.7 μm at normal incidence. (e) and (f) show the absorption as a function of the angle of incidence with dielectric thickness d = 4.7 μm and d = 4.9 μm for the first and second mode, respectively. The insets show the electric field distribution Ey for both modes as well.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) show maximum absorption as a function of dielectric thickness and frequency calculated from semi-analytical approach (Airy formula) and full wave simulation (FMM) for the first and second mode, respectively. (c) and (d) show real and imaginary parts of direct reflection coefficient (r12) as well as multiple reflection coefficient (rm) with dielectric thickness d = 4.7 μm and d = 4.9 μm for the first and the second mode respectively. The red arrows represent the crossing point when real or imaginary parts of reflection coefficients has same magnitude with opposite sign (r12 = −rm).(e) Schematic of the asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity with the definition of the multiple reflection and transmission coefficients involved and an indication on the contribution of the directly reflected light and the reflected light due to multiple scattering inside the Fabry-Perot cavity..

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ GR = i e 2 4 π h ¯ ln [ 2 | μ c | ( ω + i 2 Γ ) h ¯ 2 | μ c | + ( ω + i 2 Γ ) h ¯ ] + i e 2 k B T π h ¯ 2 ( ω + i 2 Γ ) [ μ c k B T + 2 ln ( e μ c / k B T + 1 ) ] ,
r = r 12 + r m = r 12 + t 12 t 21 r 23 e ( 2 i φ ) 1 r 21 r 23 e ( 2 i φ ) ,

Metrics