Abstract

We present a monolithic dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulator based on a silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC). This PIC consists of four high-speed silicon modulators, a polarization rotator, and a polarization beam combiner. A 112-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) QPSK modulation is successfully demonstrated.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (4)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Alic, N.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Aroca, R.

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. Aroca, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “Packaged monolithic silicon 112-Gb/s coherent receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 762–764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baeyens, Y.

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. Aroca, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “Packaged monolithic silicon 112-Gb/s coherent receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 762–764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, L. Chen, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “50-Gb/s silicon quadrature phase-shift keying modulator,” Opt. Express20(19), 21181–21186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. Aroca, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “Packaged monolithic silicon 112-Gb/s coherent receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 762–764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. Aroca, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “Packaged monolithic silicon 112-Gb/s coherent receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 762–764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, L. Chen, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “50-Gb/s silicon quadrature phase-shift keying modulator,” Opt. Express20(19), 21181–21186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, and Y.-K. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of microring quadrature phase-shift keying modulators,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1178–1180 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, and Y.-K. Chen, “Compact polarization rotator on silicon for polarization-diversified circuits,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 469–471 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. Aroca, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “Packaged monolithic silicon 112-Gb/s coherent receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 762–764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Cunningham, J. E.

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, and Y.-K. Chen, “Compact polarization rotator on silicon for polarization-diversified circuits,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 469–471 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. Aroca, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “Packaged monolithic silicon 112-Gb/s coherent receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 762–764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Essiambre, R.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fontaine, N. K.

Fournier, M.

Fukuda, H.

Gardes, F.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Grosse, P.

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Hu, Y.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itabashi, S.

Izhaky, N.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kuo, B.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Liu, X.

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. Aroca, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “Packaged monolithic silicon 112-Gb/s coherent receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 762–764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G.

Mashanovich, S. R. G.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Michel, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Myslivets, E.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Nguyen, H.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Reed, G.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savory, S. J.

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Shinojima, H.

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

Thomson, D. J.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. M.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

Xie, C.

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. Aroca, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “Packaged monolithic silicon 112-Gb/s coherent receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 762–764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. R. G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 234–236 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
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P. Dong, L. Chen, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “50-Gb/s silicon quadrature phase-shift keying modulator,” Opt. Express20(19), 21181–21186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 6–15 (2006).

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E. Yamada, S. Kanazawa, A. Ohki, K. Watanabe, Y. Nasu, N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, R. Iga, and H. Ishii, “112-Gb/s InP DP-QPSK modulator integrated with a silica-PLC polarization multiplexing circuit,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5A.9.

K. Prosyk, T. Brast, M. Gruner, M. Hamacher, D. Hoffmann, R. Millett, and K. Velthaus, “Tunable InP-based optical IQ modulator for 160 Gb/s,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.A.5.

P. Evans, M. Fisher, R. Malendevich, A. James, P. Studenkov, G. Goldfarb, T. Vallaitis, M. Kato, P. Samra, S. Corzine, E. Strzelecka, R. Salvatore, F. Sedgwick, M. Kuntz, V. Lal, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, D. Pavinski, J. Zhang, B. Behnia, J. Bostak, V. Dominic, A. Nilsson, B. Taylor, J. Rahn, S. Sanders, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, M. Missey, R. Schneider, J. Stewart, M. Reffle, T. Butrie, and R. Nagarajan, C, Joyner, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Multi-channel coherent PM-QPSK InP transmitter photonic integrated circuit (PIC) operating at 112 Gb/s per wavelength,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPC7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Silicon-PIC PDM-QPSK modulator. (a) Photograph of the PIC. PR: polarization rotator; PBC: polarization beam combiner. (b) Schematic layout of the silicon PIC. (c) Schematic of the PR, adapted from Ref [9]. (d) Schematic of the PBC. (e) Photograph of the packaged silicon PIC with a printed circuit board (PCB).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for characterizing the packaged silicon PIC. (a) Electrical drive signals. (b) Optical setup. MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator; PC: polarization controller; VOA: variable optical attenuator; EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier; LO: local oscillator; DSP: digital signal processing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-polarization QPSK. (a) QPSK optical spectrum (resolution bandwidth is 0.01 nm). (b) QPSK constellation at an OSNR of 31 dB. (c) BER as a function of OSNR (0.1-nm noise bandwidth).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK generation. (a) and (b) PDM-QPSK constellations at an OSNR of 31 dB. (c) BER as a function of OSNR (0.1-nm noise bandwidth).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power imbalance induced OSNR penalty at BER = 10−3 for 112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK.

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