Abstract

We demonstrated 20-Gbit/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) optical packet switching and real-time detection using self-homodyne. A prototype modulator consisting of an in-phase and quadrature (I-Q) modulator and monolithically integrated polarization beam splitters generated modulated signals and polarization-multiplexed pilot-carriers simultaneously. Self-homodyne detection using the pilot-carrier was resilient to phase noise and self-phase modulation, and the constellation was obtained in real time without digital signal processing. A low-polarization-dependent (Pb,La)(Zr,La)O3 (PLZT) optical switch in the optical packet switch handled both 16-QAM optical packets and the polarization multiplexed pilot-carrier. Even after packet switching, a clear constellation diagram was obtained, and error-free operation was confirmed in real-time using a packet bit-error rate tester (BERT).

© 2012 OSA

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  1. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, T. Lotz, J. Carlson, J. Yang, G. Cheren, and S. Zederbaum, “1.5-Tb/s guard-banded superchannel transmission over 56×100-km (5600-km) ULAF using 30-Gbaud pilot-free OFDM-16QAM signals with 5.75-b/s/Hz net spectral efficiency,” in Proceedings of 38th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2012), Th.3.C.5.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Wernz, S. Bayer, B. E. Olsson, M. Camera, H. Griesser, and C. Fürst, “112Gb/s PolMux RZ-DQPSK with fast polarization tracking based on interference control,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009 (2009), OTuN4.

2011

2008

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakamura, Y. Kamio, and T. Miyazaki, “Linewidth-tolerant 10-Gbit/s 16-QAM transmission using a pilot-carrier based phase-noise cancelling technique,” Opt. Express16(14), 10611–10616 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2003

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. S. Dorren, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, A. Srivatsa, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, and G. D. Khoe, “Optical packet switching and buffering by using all-optical signal processing methods,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(1), 2–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. J. Blumenthal, A. Carena, L. Rau, V. Curri, and S. Humphries, “All-optical label swapping with wavelength conversion for WDM-IP networks with subcarrier multiplexed addressing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1497–1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama and N. Wada, “Photonic IP routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1689–1691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agrell, E.

Akella, V.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Bansal, Y.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. J. Blumenthal, A. Carena, L. Rau, V. Curri, and S. Humphries, “All-optical label swapping with wavelength conversion for WDM-IP networks with subcarrier multiplexed addressing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1497–1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calabretta, N.

Cao, J.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carena, A.

D. J. Blumenthal, A. Carena, L. Rau, V. Curri, and S. Humphries, “All-optical label swapping with wavelength conversion for WDM-IP networks with subcarrier multiplexed addressing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1497–1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cincotti, G.

Curri, V.

D. J. Blumenthal, A. Carena, L. Rau, V. Curri, and S. Humphries, “All-optical label swapping with wavelength conversion for WDM-IP networks with subcarrier multiplexed addressing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1497–1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

Dorren, H. J. S.

Furukawa, H.

Goncher, G.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hidayat, A.

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

Huijskens, F. M.

Humphries, S.

D. J. Blumenthal, A. Carena, L. Rau, V. Curri, and S. Humphries, “All-optical label swapping with wavelength conversion for WDM-IP networks with subcarrier multiplexed addressing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1497–1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johannisson, P.

Kamei, S.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kamio, Y.

Karlsson, M.

Khoe, G. D.

Kitayama, K.

Koch, B.

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lichtinger, M.

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lu, G. W.

Mirvoda, V.

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

Nady, T.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

Noé, R.

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rau, L.

D. J. Blumenthal, A. Carena, L. Rau, V. Curri, and S. Humphries, “All-optical label swapping with wavelength conversion for WDM-IP networks with subcarrier multiplexed addressing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1497–1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shinada, S.

Sjödin, M.

Srivatsa, A.

Taylor, J.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

Xue, F.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Area. Commun.21(7), 1041–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. J. Blumenthal, A. Carena, L. Rau, V. Curri, and S. Humphries, “All-optical label swapping with wavelength conversion for WDM-IP networks with subcarrier multiplexed addressing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1497–1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama and N. Wada, “Photonic IP routing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(12), 1689–1691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, A. Hidayat, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, and R. Noé, “Optical endless polarization stabilization at 9 krad/s with FPGA-based controller,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(12), 961–963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

H. Wernz, S. Bayer, B. E. Olsson, M. Camera, H. Griesser, and C. Fürst, “112Gb/s PolMux RZ-DQPSK with fast polarization tracking based on interference control,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009 (2009), OTuN4.

S. Shinada, M. Nakamura, Y. Kamio, and N. Wada, “16-QAM optical packet switching with real-time self-homodyne detection using polarization-multiplexed pilot-carrier,” in Proceedings of 38th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2012),We.2.A.2.

K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in Proceedings of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2010), 8E1–1.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and P. J. Winzer, “Fast-tuning 224-Gb/s intradyne receiver for optical packet networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2010 (2010), PDPB5.

B. C. Thomsen, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, and S. J. Savory, “Burst mode receiver for 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK,” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), Mo.2.A.5.

F. Vacondio, C. Simonneau, A. Voicila, E. Dutisseuil, J. M. Tanguy, J. C. Antona, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Real time implementation of packet-by-packet polarization demultiplexing in a 28 Gb/s burst mode coherent receiver,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2012 (2012), OM3H.6.

N. Wada, H. Harai, and F. Kubota, “40 Gbit/s interface, optical code based photonic packet switch prototype,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2003 (2003), FS7.

N. Calabretta and H. Dorren, “All-optical label processing in optical packet switched networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2010 (2010), OThN6.

N. Kamitani, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental study on impact of SOA nonlinear phase noise in 40Gbps coherent 16QAM transmissions,” in Proceedings of 38th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2012), P1.04.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, T. Lotz, J. Carlson, J. Yang, G. Cheren, and S. Zederbaum, “1.5-Tb/s guard-banded superchannel transmission over 56×100-km (5600-km) ULAF using 30-Gbaud pilot-free OFDM-16QAM signals with 5.75-b/s/Hz net spectral efficiency,” in Proceedings of 38th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2012), Th.3.C.5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of transmitter for 16-QAM optical packet generation using pilot-carrier vector modulator with I-Q modulator and monolithically integrated polarization beam splitters (PBSs).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I-Q mapping of 16-QAM using pre-coded data in this demonstration. By adjusting two threshold levels of the XOR circuit, each data can be directly extracted from a four-level signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of 16-QAM optical packet switching and real-time detection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Part of the reference signal of Data-I, (b) eye-diagrams of received I and Q channels in case of using the reference signal for 16-QAM modulation, (c) part of the pre-distorted signal generated by the DSP, and (d) received eye-diagrams in case of using pre-distorted signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical waveform of (a) 16-QAM optical packets before the OPS process (inset: a packet with PSK labels) and (b) the packets after the PLZT switch (label switching).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Electrical waveform and (b) eye-diagram after receiver (inset: constellation diagram of 16-QAM packets). (c) BER characteristics of received 16-QAM packets after optical packet switching.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pre-coding and decoding processes in this demonstration (for I-component).

Metrics