Abstract

This paper proposes the use of chirp-managed lasers (CML) as cost-effective downstream (DS) transmitters for next generation access networks. As the laser bandwidth is as high as 10 GHz, the CML could be directly modulated at 10 Gbit/s for downstream transmission in future wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks (WDM PON). The laser adiabatic chirp, which is the main drawback limiting the transmission performance of directly modulated lasers, is now utilized to generate phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation format by direct modulation. At the user premise, the wavelength reuse technique based on reflective colorless upstream transmitter is applied. The optical network unit (ONU) reflects and orthogonally remodulates the received light with upstream data. A full-duplex transmission with symmetrical 10-Gbit/s bandwidth is demonstrated. Bit-error-rate measurement showed that optical power budgets of 29 dB at BER of 10−9 or of 36 dB at BER of 10−3 could be obtained with direct phase-shift-keying modulation of CML which proves that the proposed solution is a viable candidate for future WDM-PONs.

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  1. FTTH Council Europe, “Reshuffling Europe’s Fibre to the Home leadership,” FTTH Conference 2012, Munich, 15 February 2012.
  2. F. Ponzini, F. Cavaliere, G. Berrettini, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, N. Calabretta, and A. Bogoni, “Evolution Scenario Toward WDM-PON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.1(4), C25–C34 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Genay, P. Chanclou, T. Duong, N. Brochier, and E. Pincemin, “Bidirectional WDM/TDM-PON access networks integrating downstream 10 Gbit/s DPSK and upstream 2.5 Gbit/s OOK on the same wavelength,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'06) (Cannes, France, 2006), Th.3.6.6.
  4. J. Prat, V. Polo, C. Bock, C. Arellano, and J. Olmos, “Full-duplex single fiber transmission using FSK downstream and IM remote upstream modulations for fiber-to-the-home,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 702–704 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Maher, L. Barry, and P. Anandarajah, “Cost efficient directly modulated DPSK downstream transmitter and colourless upstream remodulation for full-duplex WDM-PONs,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC'10) (San Diego CA, 2010), JThA29.
  6. D. Mahgerefteh, Y. Matsui, X. Zheng, and K. McCallion, “Chirp Managed Laser and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1126–1139 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Jia, J. Xu, Z. Liu, K.-H. Tse, and C.-K. Chan, “Generation and Transmission of 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals Using a Directly Modulated Chirp-Managed Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(3), 173–175 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Franklin, L. Kil, D. Mooney, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, Y. Matsui, K. McCallion, F. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Generation of RZ-DPSK using a Chirp-Managed Laser (CML),” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'08) (San Diego, California, 2008), JWA67.
  9. C.-K. Chan, W. Jia, and Z. Liu, “Advanced modulation format generation using high-speed directly modulated lasers for optical metro/access systems,” in Proc. Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP'11), 8309, 83090X.
  10. Q. T. Le, K. Zogal, T. von Lerber, C. Gierl, A. Emsia, D. Briggmann, and F. Kueppers, “Direct DPSK Modulation of Chirp Managed Lasers for Symmetrical 10-Gbit/s WDM-PONs,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'12) (Amsterdam, Netherland, 2012), P6.14.
  11. R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, “Wideband chirp measurement technique for high bit rate sources,” Electron. Lett.30(16), 1336–1338 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. W. Lu, N. Deng, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “Use of downstream inverse-RZ signal for upstream data re-modulation in a WDM passive optical network,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC'05) (Anaheim, CA, 2005), OFI8.
  13. W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Kazmierski, “Remote amplified modulators: Key components for 10 Gb/s WDM PON,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'10) (Torino, Italy, 2010), Mo.1.F.1.
  15. P. Chanclou, F. Bourgart, B. Landousies, S. Gosselin, B. Charbonnier, N. Genay, A. Pizzinat, F. Saliou, B. Le Guyader, B. Capelle, Q. T. Le, F. Raharimanitra, A. Gharba, L. Neto, J. Guillory, Q. Deniel, and S. Deniel, “Technical options for NGPON2 beyond 10G PON,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'11) (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), We.9.C.3.
  16. A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, T. von Lerber, E. Parsons, H. Chaouch, A. Marculescu, J. Leuthold, and F. Kueppers, “Dual output SOA based amplifier for PON extenders,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'10) (Torino, Italy, 2010), P6.18.
  17. Q. T. Le, F. Saliou, R. Xia, P. Chanclou, T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kueppers, “TDM/DWDM PON extender for 10 Gbit/s downstream transmission,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'11) (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), Th.12.C.2.

2011

W. Jia, J. Xu, Z. Liu, K.-H. Tse, and C.-K. Chan, “Generation and Transmission of 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals Using a Directly Modulated Chirp-Managed Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(3), 173–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Mahgerefteh, Y. Matsui, X. Zheng, and K. McCallion, “Chirp Managed Laser and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1126–1139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2005

J. Prat, V. Polo, C. Bock, C. Arellano, and J. Olmos, “Full-duplex single fiber transmission using FSK downstream and IM remote upstream modulations for fiber-to-the-home,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 702–704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, “Wideband chirp measurement technique for high bit rate sources,” Electron. Lett.30(16), 1336–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arellano, C.

J. Prat, V. Polo, C. Bock, C. Arellano, and J. Olmos, “Full-duplex single fiber transmission using FSK downstream and IM remote upstream modulations for fiber-to-the-home,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 702–704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berrettini, G.

Bock, C.

J. Prat, V. Polo, C. Bock, C. Arellano, and J. Olmos, “Full-duplex single fiber transmission using FSK downstream and IM remote upstream modulations for fiber-to-the-home,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 702–704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogoni, A.

Calabretta, N.

Cavaliere, F.

Chan, C.-K.

W. Jia, J. Xu, Z. Liu, K.-H. Tse, and C.-K. Chan, “Generation and Transmission of 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals Using a Directly Modulated Chirp-Managed Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(3), 173–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ciaramella, E.

Hardcastle, I.

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, “Wideband chirp measurement technique for high bit rate sources,” Electron. Lett.30(16), 1336–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, G.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W.

W. Jia, J. Xu, Z. Liu, K.-H. Tse, and C.-K. Chan, “Generation and Transmission of 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals Using a Directly Modulated Chirp-Managed Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(3), 173–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. W.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

King, J. P.

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, “Wideband chirp measurement technique for high bit rate sources,” Electron. Lett.30(16), 1336–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

W. Jia, J. Xu, Z. Liu, K.-H. Tse, and C.-K. Chan, “Generation and Transmission of 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals Using a Directly Modulated Chirp-Managed Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(3), 173–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahgerefteh, D.

D. Mahgerefteh, Y. Matsui, X. Zheng, and K. McCallion, “Chirp Managed Laser and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1126–1139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, Y.

D. Mahgerefteh, Y. Matsui, X. Zheng, and K. McCallion, “Chirp Managed Laser and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1126–1139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McCallion, K.

D. Mahgerefteh, Y. Matsui, X. Zheng, and K. McCallion, “Chirp Managed Laser and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1126–1139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olmos, J.

J. Prat, V. Polo, C. Bock, C. Arellano, and J. Olmos, “Full-duplex single fiber transmission using FSK downstream and IM remote upstream modulations for fiber-to-the-home,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 702–704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, M. Y.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polo, V.

J. Prat, V. Polo, C. Bock, C. Arellano, and J. Olmos, “Full-duplex single fiber transmission using FSK downstream and IM remote upstream modulations for fiber-to-the-home,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 702–704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ponzini, F.

Prat, J.

J. Prat, V. Polo, C. Bock, C. Arellano, and J. Olmos, “Full-duplex single fiber transmission using FSK downstream and IM remote upstream modulations for fiber-to-the-home,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 702–704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Presi, M.

Saunders, R. A.

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, “Wideband chirp measurement technique for high bit rate sources,” Electron. Lett.30(16), 1336–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tse, K.-H.

W. Jia, J. Xu, Z. Liu, K.-H. Tse, and C.-K. Chan, “Generation and Transmission of 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals Using a Directly Modulated Chirp-Managed Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(3), 173–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

W. Jia, J. Xu, Z. Liu, K.-H. Tse, and C.-K. Chan, “Generation and Transmission of 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals Using a Directly Modulated Chirp-Managed Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(3), 173–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

D. Mahgerefteh, Y. Matsui, X. Zheng, and K. McCallion, “Chirp Managed Laser and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1126–1139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. A. Saunders, J. P. King, and I. Hardcastle, “Wideband chirp measurement technique for high bit rate sources,” Electron. Lett.30(16), 1336–1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. Mahgerefteh, Y. Matsui, X. Zheng, and K. McCallion, “Chirp Managed Laser and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1126–1139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. Jia, J. Xu, Z. Liu, K.-H. Tse, and C.-K. Chan, “Generation and Transmission of 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK Signals Using a Directly Modulated Chirp-Managed Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(3), 173–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Prat, V. Polo, C. Bock, C. Arellano, and J. Olmos, “Full-duplex single fiber transmission using FSK downstream and IM remote upstream modulations for fiber-to-the-home,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(3), 702–704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Other

N. Genay, P. Chanclou, T. Duong, N. Brochier, and E. Pincemin, “Bidirectional WDM/TDM-PON access networks integrating downstream 10 Gbit/s DPSK and upstream 2.5 Gbit/s OOK on the same wavelength,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'06) (Cannes, France, 2006), Th.3.6.6.

R. Maher, L. Barry, and P. Anandarajah, “Cost efficient directly modulated DPSK downstream transmitter and colourless upstream remodulation for full-duplex WDM-PONs,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC'10) (San Diego CA, 2010), JThA29.

J. Franklin, L. Kil, D. Mooney, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, Y. Matsui, K. McCallion, F. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Generation of RZ-DPSK using a Chirp-Managed Laser (CML),” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC'08) (San Diego, California, 2008), JWA67.

C.-K. Chan, W. Jia, and Z. Liu, “Advanced modulation format generation using high-speed directly modulated lasers for optical metro/access systems,” in Proc. Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP'11), 8309, 83090X.

Q. T. Le, K. Zogal, T. von Lerber, C. Gierl, A. Emsia, D. Briggmann, and F. Kueppers, “Direct DPSK Modulation of Chirp Managed Lasers for Symmetrical 10-Gbit/s WDM-PONs,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'12) (Amsterdam, Netherland, 2012), P6.14.

C. Kazmierski, “Remote amplified modulators: Key components for 10 Gb/s WDM PON,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'10) (Torino, Italy, 2010), Mo.1.F.1.

P. Chanclou, F. Bourgart, B. Landousies, S. Gosselin, B. Charbonnier, N. Genay, A. Pizzinat, F. Saliou, B. Le Guyader, B. Capelle, Q. T. Le, F. Raharimanitra, A. Gharba, L. Neto, J. Guillory, Q. Deniel, and S. Deniel, “Technical options for NGPON2 beyond 10G PON,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'11) (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), We.9.C.3.

A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, T. von Lerber, E. Parsons, H. Chaouch, A. Marculescu, J. Leuthold, and F. Kueppers, “Dual output SOA based amplifier for PON extenders,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'10) (Torino, Italy, 2010), P6.18.

Q. T. Le, F. Saliou, R. Xia, P. Chanclou, T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Kueppers, “TDM/DWDM PON extender for 10 Gbit/s downstream transmission,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC'11) (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), Th.12.C.2.

G. W. Lu, N. Deng, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “Use of downstream inverse-RZ signal for upstream data re-modulation in a WDM passive optical network,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC'05) (Anaheim, CA, 2005), OFI8.

FTTH Council Europe, “Reshuffling Europe’s Fibre to the Home leadership,” FTTH Conference 2012, Munich, 15 February 2012.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of chirp-managed laser as DPSK transmitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Operation principal of direct DPSK generation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser frequency shift versus driving voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

WDM PON architecture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Proposed DS receiver and US transmitter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

10-Gbit/s upstream eye patterns when the delay between downstream and upstream signals is adjusted (a), mismatched (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Residual intensity fluctuations at the CML output, and demodulated signals at the DLI constructive port (b) and DLI destructive port (c).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER measurements for CML and MZM-based 10-Gbit/s DPSK signals.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

BER analysis for 10 Gbit/s DPSK downstream.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

BER analysis for 10 Gbit/s RZ upstream.

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