Abstract

We investigate the performance of carrier phase estimation (CPE) and digital backward propagation (DBP) in compensating fiber nonlinearity for 224Gbps polarization-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude-modulation coherent systems with level of 4 and 16 (PM-4-QAM and PM-16-QAM) over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) uncompensated link. The results from numerical simulation show the individual performance of CPE and DBP as well as their mutual influence. With DBP compensation, required CPE tap number for optimal performance can be reduced by 50% for 4-QAM signal and 67% for 16-QAM signal compared to linear compensation. On the other hand, employing CPE compensation after DBP also allows to reduce DBP steps. In the mentioned PM-16-QAM system, 60% reduction in the required number of DBP steps to achieve BER=10−3 is possible, with a step-size of 200km, which reveals great potential to reduce the complexity for future real time implementation.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Fiber impairment compensation using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 502–519 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Winzer and A. H. Gnauck, “112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2008), Th.3.E.5.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express16, 804–817 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gbps polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 547–556 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Zhou and J. Yu, “Multi-level, multi-dimensional coding for high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(16), 3641–3653 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, and P. Bayvel, “Nonlinear distortion in transmission of higher order modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1111–1113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noe, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(8), 989–999 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery 16-QAM optical coherent system,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(15), 3042–3049 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.
  10. K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, and B. Lankl, “Nonlinearity mitigation with carrier phase estimation for coherent receivers with higher-order modulation formats,” Topic Meeting in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society(2009), We.3.
  11. L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.
  12. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and non-linear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(20), 3416–3425 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Rafique, J. Zhao, and A. Ellis, “Digital back-propagation for spectrally efficient WDM 112 Gbit/s PM m-ary QAM transmission,” Opt. Express19, 5219–5224 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, R. Asif, and B. Schmauss, “Compensation of transmission impairments by digital backward propagation for different link designs,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2010), P3.16.
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Asif, C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, and B. Schmauss, “Multi-span digital non-linear compensation for dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying long-haul communication systems,” Opt. Communications285(7), 1814–1818 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Du and A. Lowery, “Improved single channel back-propagation for intra-channel fiber non-linearity compensation in long-haul optical communication systems,” Opt. Express18, 17075–17088 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Rafique, M. Mussolin, M. Forzati, J. Martensson, M. N. Chugtai, and A. Ellis, “Compensation of intra-channel nonlinear fibre impairments using simplified digital back-propagation algorithm,” Opt. Express19, 9453–9460 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.
  20. G. Goldfarb and G. Li, “BER estimation of QPSK homodyne detection with carrier phase estimation using digital signal processing,” Opt. Express14, 8043–8053 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(9), 2675–2692 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

R. Asif, C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, and B. Schmauss, “Multi-span digital non-linear compensation for dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying long-haul communication systems,” Opt. Communications285(7), 1814–1818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (6)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

Akiyama, Y.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Aoki, Y.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Asif, R.

R. Asif, C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, and B. Schmauss, “Multi-span digital non-linear compensation for dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying long-haul communication systems,” Opt. Communications285(7), 1814–1818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, R. Asif, and B. Schmauss, “Compensation of transmission impairments by digital backward propagation for different link designs,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2010), P3.16.
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, and P. Bayvel, “Nonlinear distortion in transmission of higher order modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1111–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Behrens, C.

C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, and P. Bayvel, “Nonlinear distortion in transmission of higher order modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1111–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

Chen, M.

C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, and P. Bayvel, “Nonlinear distortion in transmission of higher order modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1111–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chugtai, M. N.

de Waardt, H.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

Doerr, C. R.

Dou, L.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Du, L.

Duthel, T.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

Ellis, A.

Fatadin, I.

Fludger, C. R. S.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

Forzati, M.

Gnauck, A. H.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gbps polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 547–556 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer and A. H. Gnauck, “112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2008), Th.3.E.5.
[CrossRef]

Goldfarb, G.

Gottwald, E.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

Hellerbrand, S.

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, S.

Holtmannspoetter, M.

R. Asif, C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, and B. Schmauss, “Multi-span digital non-linear compensation for dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying long-haul communication systems,” Opt. Communications285(7), 1814–1818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, R. Asif, and B. Schmauss, “Compensation of transmission impairments by digital backward propagation for different link designs,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2010), P3.16.
[CrossRef]

Hoshida, T.

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Ip, E.

Ives, D.

Kahn, J. M.

Khoe, G. D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

Killey, R.

C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, and P. Bayvel, “Nonlinear distortion in transmission of higher order modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1111–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuschnerov, M.

K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, and B. Lankl, “Nonlinearity mitigation with carrier phase estimation for coherent receivers with higher-order modulation formats,” Topic Meeting in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society(2009), We.3.

Lankl, B.

K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, and B. Lankl, “Nonlinearity mitigation with carrier phase estimation for coherent receivers with higher-order modulation formats,” Topic Meeting in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society(2009), We.3.

Li, G.

Li, L.

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Lin, C.

R. Asif, C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, and B. Schmauss, “Multi-span digital non-linear compensation for dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying long-haul communication systems,” Opt. Communications285(7), 1814–1818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, R. Asif, and B. Schmauss, “Compensation of transmission impairments by digital backward propagation for different link designs,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2010), P3.16.
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.

Lowery, A.

Magarini, M.

Makovejs, S.

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martensson, J.

Millar, D. S.

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mussolin, M.

Nakashima, H.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Noe, R.

Oda, S.

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Pfau, T.

Piyawanno, K.

K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, and B. Lankl, “Nonlinearity mitigation with carrier phase estimation for coherent receivers with higher-order modulation formats,” Topic Meeting in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society(2009), We.3.

Rafique, D.

Rasmussen, J. C.

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Sasaki, T.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Savory, S.

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Savory, S. J.

Schmauss, B.

R. Asif, C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, and B. Schmauss, “Multi-span digital non-linear compensation for dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying long-haul communication systems,” Opt. Communications285(7), 1814–1818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, R. Asif, and B. Schmauss, “Compensation of transmission impairments by digital backward propagation for different link designs,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2010), P3.16.
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E. D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

Schulien, C.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

Sone, K.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Spinnler, B.

K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, and B. Lankl, “Nonlinearity mitigation with carrier phase estimation for coherent receivers with higher-order modulation formats,” Topic Meeting in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society(2009), We.3.

Tanimura, T.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Tao, Z.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gbps polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 547–556 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer and A. H. Gnauck, “112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2008), Th.3.E.5.
[CrossRef]

Wuth, T.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

Yan, W.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.

Yu, J.

Zhao, J.

Zhou, X.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber non-linearity using a digital coherent receiver”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Behrens, R. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, and P. Bayvel, “Nonlinear distortion in transmission of higher order modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1111–1113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

Opt. Communications (1)

R. Asif, C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, and B. Schmauss, “Multi-span digital non-linear compensation for dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying long-haul communication systems,” Opt. Communications285(7), 1814–1818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Other (6)

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, Y. Akiyama, H. Nakashima, K. Sone, Y. Aoki, W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Yamamoto, and T. Sasaki, “Experimental investigation on nonlinear distortions with perturbation back-propagation algorithm in 224 Gb/s DP-16QAM Transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(2012), OM3A.2.

C. Lin, M. Holtmannspoetter, R. Asif, and B. Schmauss, “Compensation of transmission impairments by digital backward propagation for different link designs,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2010), P3.16.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer and A. H. Gnauck, “112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2008), Th.3.E.5.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ- DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2007), We.7.2.3.

K. Piyawanno, M. Kuschnerov, B. Spinnler, and B. Lankl, “Nonlinearity mitigation with carrier phase estimation for coherent receivers with higher-order modulation formats,” Topic Meeting in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society(2009), We.3.

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications(2009), P3.16.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual-polarization coherent transmission with digital signal processing module for 4-QAM and 16-QAM signals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of employed CPE algorithm according to [10] and [21].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Required OSNR dependent on CPE tap length with and without DBP compensation for (a) 4-QAM and (b) 16-QAM signals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) BER vs. number of DBP steps per fiber span without and with CPE (3 and 7 taps) for 16-QAM signal comparing different launch powers of 0dBm and 3dBm.(b) BER vs. number of DBP steps per fiber span without and with CPE (3 and 7 taps) for 4-QAM and 16-QAM signals at launch power=3dBm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contour plot of log10(BER) as function of CPE tap length and DBP step number in 224Gbps PM 16-QAM system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Constellation diagrams for different compensating configurations at 3dBm. left: only DBP; middle: LC combined with CPE and right: DBP combined with CPE.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Performance analysis of 224Gbit/s (a) PM-4-QAM signal over 1200km SSMF transmission and (b) PM-16-QAM signal over 800km SSMF transmission with DBP and CPE compensation.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ x ( k 1 ) = 1 N i = 0 i = N 1 ( x ( k + i ) x ¯ ( k + i ) ) φ y ( k 1 ) = 1 N i = 0 i = N 1 ( y ( k + i ) y ¯ ( k + i ) )
x ( k 1 ) = x ( k 1 ) exp [ j ( 1 C + 1 ( φ x ( k 1 ) + C φ y ( k 1 ) ) ) ] y ( k 1 ) = y ( k 1 ) exp [ j ( 1 C + 1 ( φ y ( k 1 ) + C φ x ( k 1 ) ) ) ]

Metrics