Abstract

We propose and experimentally study the passive coherent optical addition of complex modulation format signals through the use of a delay line interferometer followed by a temporal gate to increase the encoded bits per symbol and consequently, the spectral efficiency of an incident signal. Modulation format conversion and packet compression are demonstrated as two possible application examples. A variety of modulation formats can be accommodated, whereas higher compression factors can be achieved through the use of a cascade of delay line interferometers.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, N. Hoffman, C. J. Youn, Y. H. Kwon, and E. S. Nam, “3 × 485-Gb/s WDM transmission over 4800 km of ULAF and 12 × 100-GHz WSSs using CO-OFDM and single coherent detection with 80-GS/s ADCs,” OFC-NFOEC, paper PDPC2 (2010).
  2. X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000km transmission of 50GHz spaced, 10x494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64QAM using cascaded equalization and training-assisted phase recovery,” OFC-NFOEC, paper PDP5C.6 (2012).
  3. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator,” ECOC 2010, Torino, Italy, paper PDP 2.2 (2010).
  4. Y. -K. Huang, E. Ip, M. -F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle., Jr, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz analog-to-digital converter,” OECC 2010, Japan, paper PDP3 (2010).
  5. K. Mishina, S. Kitagawa, and A. Maruta, “All-optical modulation format conversion from on-off-keying to multiple-level phase-shift-keying based on nonlinearity in optical fiber,” Opt. Express15(13), 8444–8453 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. W. Lu, E. Tipsuwannakul, T. Miyazaki, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, and P. Andrekson, “Format conversion of optical multilevel signals using FWM-based optical phase erasure,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(16), 2460–2466 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).
  8. J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J .Richardson, “First demonstration of all-optical QPSK signal regeneration in a novel multi-format phase sensitive amplifier,” ECOC 2010, Torino, Italy, PD 3.3 (2010).
  9. H. Kishikawa, P. Seddighian, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, and L. R. Chen, “All-optical modulation format conversion from binary to quadrature phase-shift keying using delay line interferometer, ” Photonics Conference (PHO), 513 - 514 (2011).
  10. M. Sköld, H. Sunnerud, M. Westlund, and P. A. Andrekson, “Simultaneous waveform and bit-error-rate measurements of 66 GBd PDM-16-QAM signals,” ECOC PD Th.13.B.3 (2011).
  11. F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Packet compression of complex modulation formats based on coherent optical superposition,” International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2012) Warwick UK (2012).
  12. F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Temporal multiplexing of complex modulation formats facilitated by their coherent optical superposition,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECEOC) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 16, 2012 (2010).
  13. K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of phase-shift keying signals using digital carrier-phase estimation,” OFC (2006).

2011

2010

F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Temporal multiplexing of complex modulation formats facilitated by their coherent optical superposition,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECEOC) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 16, 2012 (2010).

2007

2006

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

Andrekson, P.

Jones, L. M.

F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Temporal multiplexing of complex modulation formats facilitated by their coherent optical superposition,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECEOC) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 16, 2012 (2010).

Kakande, J.

F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Temporal multiplexing of complex modulation formats facilitated by their coherent optical superposition,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECEOC) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 16, 2012 (2010).

Karlsson, M.

Kitagawa, S.

Leng, L.

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

Lu, G. W.

Lundström, C.

Maruta, A.

Mishina, K.

Miyazaki, T.

Parmigiani, F.

F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Temporal multiplexing of complex modulation formats facilitated by their coherent optical superposition,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECEOC) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 16, 2012 (2010).

Petropoulos, P.

F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Temporal multiplexing of complex modulation formats facilitated by their coherent optical superposition,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECEOC) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 16, 2012 (2010).

Richardson, D. J.

F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Temporal multiplexing of complex modulation formats facilitated by their coherent optical superposition,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECEOC) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 16, 2012 (2010).

Su, C.

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

Tian, X.

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

Tian, Y.

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Xinyu, X. X.

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

Yi, L.

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

Yikai, Y.

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Su, Y. Yikai, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. X. Xinyu, and Y. Tian, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2368–2370 (2006).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J .Richardson, “First demonstration of all-optical QPSK signal regeneration in a novel multi-format phase sensitive amplifier,” ECOC 2010, Torino, Italy, PD 3.3 (2010).

H. Kishikawa, P. Seddighian, N. Goto, S. Yanagiya, and L. R. Chen, “All-optical modulation format conversion from binary to quadrature phase-shift keying using delay line interferometer, ” Photonics Conference (PHO), 513 - 514 (2011).

M. Sköld, H. Sunnerud, M. Westlund, and P. A. Andrekson, “Simultaneous waveform and bit-error-rate measurements of 66 GBd PDM-16-QAM signals,” ECOC PD Th.13.B.3 (2011).

F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Packet compression of complex modulation formats based on coherent optical superposition,” International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2012) Warwick UK (2012).

F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, L. M. Jones, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Temporal multiplexing of complex modulation formats facilitated by their coherent optical superposition,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECEOC) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 16, 2012 (2010).

K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of phase-shift keying signals using digital carrier-phase estimation,” OFC (2006).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, N. Hoffman, C. J. Youn, Y. H. Kwon, and E. S. Nam, “3 × 485-Gb/s WDM transmission over 4800 km of ULAF and 12 × 100-GHz WSSs using CO-OFDM and single coherent detection with 80-GS/s ADCs,” OFC-NFOEC, paper PDPC2 (2010).

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, R. Isaac, P. D. Magill, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “4000km transmission of 50GHz spaced, 10x494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32-64QAM using cascaded equalization and training-assisted phase recovery,” OFC-NFOEC, paper PDP5C.6 (2012).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator,” ECOC 2010, Torino, Italy, paper PDP 2.2 (2010).

Y. -K. Huang, E. Ip, M. -F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle., Jr, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz analog-to-digital converter,” OECC 2010, Japan, paper PDP3 (2010).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Passive coherent optical superposition operation principle using a DLI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Generalized passive coherent optical superposition operation principle using DLIs and time gating functions. (b) Extension to higher spectral efficiencies, higher compression factors and more complex modulation formats.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Some example of simulated constellation diagrams to re-code the original BPSK signal (a) to QPSK (b) 16QAM (c) and 256QAM (d) signals, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental set-up of the passive coherent optical superposition scheme. Mod: Intensity modulator, LO: local oscillator, OMA: optical modulation analyzer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams at various points of the format converter for BPSK as input signals. Scale: 100ps/div.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams at various points of the format converter for QPSK as input signals. Scale: 100ps/div.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER curves for various modulation formats at 10Gbaud.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams at various points of the packet compression scheme for BPSK and QPSK as input signals. Scale: 2ns/div.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Simulated EVM values versus transmission length prior the proposed scheme for different DLI delays (switch time windows). (b) Simulated EVM values as a function of laser linewidth for different values of DLI delays.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phase combination of two BPSK signals (Si1 and Si2) and converted QPSK signal (So).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Phase shift and attenuation values in the DLI to achieve various complex modulation formats.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Maximum reach for various delays to achieve EVM ~20%rms.

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