Abstract

This paper proposes a novel physical-enhanced chaotic secure strategy for optical OFDMA-PON based on two-dimensional (2-D) scrambling. In order to enhance the physical security, a multi-layer chaotic mapping is proposed to generate the scrambling vectors. It can enhance the chaotic characteristic of Logistic mapping and increase the key space. Furthermore, the 2-D scrambling jointly utilizing frequency subcarriers and time-slots can improve the system resistance to eavesdropper. The feasibility of 15.6 Gb/s 2-D encrypted 64QAM-OFDM downstream signal has been successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The robustness of the proposed method shows its prospect in future OFDM access network.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao and A. Ellis, “Transmission of 4-ASK optical fast OFDM with chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 34–36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N.-C. Tran, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. Jung, and T. Koonen, “Flexibility level adjustment in reconfigurable WDM-TDM optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(15), 2542–2550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 384–398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, X. Xin, B. Liu, and J. Yu, “Physical-enhanced secure strategy in an OFDM-PON,” Opt. Express20(3), 2255–2265 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

S.-L. Chen, T. T. Hwang, and W.-W. Lin, “Randomness enhancement using digitalized modified logistic map,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., II Express Briefs57(12), 996–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

1949

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory of secrecy systems,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.28, 656–715 (1949).

Becker, J.

Ben-Ezra, S.

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-L.

S.-L. Chen, T. T. Hwang, and W.-W. Lin, “Randomness enhancement using digitalized modified logistic map,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., II Express Briefs57(12), 996–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cvijetic, M.

Cvijetic, N.

Deng, Y.

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics and Security6(3), 725–736 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dreschmann, M.

Ellis, A.

J. Zhao and A. Ellis, “Transmission of 4-ASK optical fast OFDM with chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 34–36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics and Security6(3), 725–736 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

Giddings, R. P.

Groenewald, J.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hsu, C.-H.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, D.-Z.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.-F.

Huang, Y.-K.

Huebner, M.

Hugues-Salas, E.

Hwang, T. T.

S.-L. Chen, T. T. Hwang, and W.-W. Lin, “Randomness enhancement using digitalized modified logistic map,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., II Express Briefs57(12), 996–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

Jin, X. Q.

Jung, H.

Koonen, T.

Koos, C.

Lee, S. S. W.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Li, W.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-H.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.-W.

S.-L. Chen, T. T. Hwang, and W.-W. Lin, “Randomness enhancement using digitalized modified logistic map,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., II Express Briefs57(12), 996–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-M.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Meyer, J.

Nebendahl, B.

Okonkwo, C.

Prucnal, P. R.

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics and Security6(3), 725–736 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmogrow, R.

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory of secrecy systems,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.28, 656–715 (1949).

Shao, Y.

Shih, J.-L.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J. M.

Tangdiongga, E.

Tien, P.-L.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N.-C.

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics and Security6(3), 725–736 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. C.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J. L.

Winter, M.

Xin, X.

Yu, J.

Yuang, M. C.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao and A. Ellis, “Transmission of 4-ASK optical fast OFDM with chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 34–36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory of secrecy systems,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.28, 656–715 (1949).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao and A. Ellis, “Transmission of 4-ASK optical fast OFDM with chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 34–36 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., II Express Briefs

S.-L. Chen, T. T. Hwang, and W.-W. Lin, “Randomness enhancement using digitalized modified logistic map,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., II Express Briefs57(12), 996–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics and Security

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics and Security6(3), 725–736 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The scheme of proposed physical secure OFDMA-PON based on 2-D scrambling (CP: cyclic prefix).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental setup (AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; IM: intensity modulator).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) electrical signal waveform; (b) electrical spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The phase diagrams of chaos map (a) conventional Logistic map; (b) multi-layer controlled Logistic map.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Statistical histograms with subcarriers of 128: (a) before QAM symbol scrambling; (b) after QAM symbol scrambling.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured BER curves of 64QAM-OFDM signal at the regular ONU and illegal ONU.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x n+1 up =μ x n up (1- x n up )+(ζ x n up )mod(0.016μ)
x n+1 b = λ * x n b* (1 x n b* )
{ λ * = 0.4[ x n up ε 1 μ 2 (4μ)] 0.25μ ε 1 μ 2 (4μ) + ε 2 x n b* =Mo d 0.25 λ * ( 2 3 | x n b 0.9 x n up |)
s t = k=1 N C k ×exp[j2π f k (t1)T N ] , t=1,2,...,T
[ c ' i,k c ' i+1,k c ' i,k+1 c ' i+1,k+1 ]= M E [ c i,k c i+1,k c i,k+1 c i+1,k+1 ]
M E =( 1 a b ab+1 ) ,| M E |=1
s ' t ={ k=1 N C ' k × M F e j2π f k (t1)T N }× M T

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