Abstract

An in-band optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitor is proposed, based on an instantaneous polarization state distribution analysis. The proposed monitor is simple, and is applicable to polarization division multiplexed signals. We fabricate a high-speed Stokes polarimeter that integrates a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) based polarization filter, high-speed InP/InGaAs photodiodes and InP hetero-junction bipolar transistor (HBT) trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA). We carry out proof-of-concept experiments with the fabricated polarimeter, and successfully measure the OSNR dependent polarization distribution with 100-Gb/s dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) signals.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. H. Suzuki and N. Takachio, “Optical quality monitor built into WDM linear repeaters using semiconductor arrayed waveguide grating filter monolithically integrated with eight photodiodes,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 836–837 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “Interferometer based in-band OSNR monitoring of single and dual polarisation QPSK signals,” in Proc. ECOC’11, Th.9.C.6 (2010).
  3. J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung “A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM network,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(11), 4162–4171 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Möller, and R. Ryf, “Orthogonal-polarization heterodyne OSNR monitoring insensitive to polarization-mode dispersion and nonlinear polarization scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 177–183 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. B. Anderson, S. Chen, A. Tran, D. F. Hewitt, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “Optical performance monitoring with low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proc. ECOC’12, Th.2.A.1 (2012).
  6. B. Szafraniec, “Performance monitoring and measurement techniques for coherent systems,” in Proc. OFC’12, OW4G.5 (2012).
  7. T. Saida, Y. Orihara, H. Yamada, K. Takiguchi, T. Goh, and K. Okamoto, “Integrated optical polarization analyser on planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1948–1949 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Murata, T. Saida, K. Sano, I. Ogawa, H. Fukuyama, R. Kasahara, Y. Muramoto, H. Nosaka, S. Tsunashima, T. Mizuno, H. Tanobe, K. Hattori, T. Yoshimatsu, H. Kawakami, and E. Yoshida, “100-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK coherent receiver with wide dynamic range and excellent common-mode rejection ratio,” Opt. Express19(26), B125–B130 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Nasu, T. Mizuno, R. Kasahara, and T. Saida, “Temperature insensitive and ultra wideband silica-based dual polarization optical hybrid for coherent receiver with highly symmetrical interferometer design,” Opt. Express19(26), B112–B118 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1999 (2)

H. Suzuki and N. Takachio, “Optical quality monitor built into WDM linear repeaters using semiconductor arrayed waveguide grating filter monolithically integrated with eight photodiodes,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 836–837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Saida, Y. Orihara, H. Yamada, K. Takiguchi, T. Goh, and K. Okamoto, “Integrated optical polarization analyser on planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1948–1949 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

Chung, Y. C.

Fukuyama, H.

Goh, T.

T. Saida, Y. Orihara, H. Yamada, K. Takiguchi, T. Goh, and K. Okamoto, “Integrated optical polarization analyser on planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1948–1949 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, K.

Kasahara, R.

Kawakami, H.

Kilper, D. C.

Lee, J. H.

Mizuno, T.

Möller, L.

Muramoto, Y.

Murata, K.

Nasu, Y.

Nosaka, H.

Ogawa, I.

Okamoto, K.

T. Saida, Y. Orihara, H. Yamada, K. Takiguchi, T. Goh, and K. Okamoto, “Integrated optical polarization analyser on planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1948–1949 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orihara, Y.

T. Saida, Y. Orihara, H. Yamada, K. Takiguchi, T. Goh, and K. Okamoto, “Integrated optical polarization analyser on planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1948–1949 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

Saida, T.

Sano, K.

Shin, S. K.

Suzuki, H.

H. Suzuki and N. Takachio, “Optical quality monitor built into WDM linear repeaters using semiconductor arrayed waveguide grating filter monolithically integrated with eight photodiodes,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 836–837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takachio, N.

H. Suzuki and N. Takachio, “Optical quality monitor built into WDM linear repeaters using semiconductor arrayed waveguide grating filter monolithically integrated with eight photodiodes,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 836–837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, K.

T. Saida, Y. Orihara, H. Yamada, K. Takiguchi, T. Goh, and K. Okamoto, “Integrated optical polarization analyser on planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1948–1949 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanobe, H.

Tsunashima, S.

Xie, C.

Yamada, H.

T. Saida, Y. Orihara, H. Yamada, K. Takiguchi, T. Goh, and K. Okamoto, “Integrated optical polarization analyser on planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1948–1949 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

Yoshimatsu, T.

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Suzuki and N. Takachio, “Optical quality monitor built into WDM linear repeaters using semiconductor arrayed waveguide grating filter monolithically integrated with eight photodiodes,” Electron. Lett.35(10), 836–837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Saida, Y. Orihara, H. Yamada, K. Takiguchi, T. Goh, and K. Okamoto, “Integrated optical polarization analyser on planar lightwave circuit,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1948–1949 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (3)

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “Interferometer based in-band OSNR monitoring of single and dual polarisation QPSK signals,” in Proc. ECOC’11, Th.9.C.6 (2010).

T. B. Anderson, S. Chen, A. Tran, D. F. Hewitt, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “Optical performance monitoring with low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proc. ECOC’12, Th.2.A.1 (2012).

B. Szafraniec, “Performance monitoring and measurement techniques for coherent systems,” in Proc. OFC’12, OW4G.5 (2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated state of polarization of DP-QPSK signal observed with (a) low- and (b) high-speed polarimeter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated polarization state of ASE noise observed with (a) low- and high-speed polarimeters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

High-speed integrated Stokes polarimeter; (a) schematic configuration and (b) fabricated high-speed polarimeter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OE response of fabricated Stokes polarimeter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured polarization state change of 100-Gb/s DP-QPSK signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured polarization state distribution; (a) measurement setup, polarization state distribution at an OSNR of (b) 10 dB, (c) 14 dB and (d) 18 dB.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) OSNR dependent standard deviation of thickness, and (b) estimated OSNR with high speed integrated Stokes polarimeter.

Equations (10)

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E=[ 1α E sx + α E sy 1α E sx + α E sy ].
S 1 =( 1α ) S s1 +α S n1 + α( 1α ) ( E sx E nx + E sx E nx E sy E ny E sy E ny ).
σ= ( 1 α 2 ) S s1 2 + α 2 S n1 2 +2α( 1α )( | E sx | 2 | E nx | 2 + | E sy | 2 | E ny | 2 ) .
| E sx | 2 = | E sy | 2 = ε 2 ,
| E nx | 2 = | E ny | 2 = γ 2 ,
S n1 2 = γ 2 3 .
σ= ( 1 α 2 ) σ 0 2 + α 2 γ 2 3 +α( 1α )γε ,
I 1 = 1 3 ( | E x | 2 | E y | 2 )= S 1 3 ,
I 2 = 1 3 ( E x E y + E x E y )= S 2 3 ,
I 3 = j 3 ( E x E y E x E y )= S 3 3 .

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