Abstract

Frequency stabilization of a THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) to the harmonic of a microwave source has been accomplished using a Schottky diode waveguide mixer designed for harmonic mixing. The 2.32 THz, 1.0 milliwatt CW QCL is coupled into the signal port of the mixer and a 110 GHz signal, derived from a harmonic of a microwave synthesizer, is coupled into the IF port. The difference frequency between the 21st harmonic of 110 GHz and the QCL is used in a discriminator to adjust the QCL bias current to stabilize the frequency. The short-term frequency jitter is reduced from 550 kHz to 4.5 kHz (FWHM) and the long-term frequency drift is eliminated. This performance is compared to that of several other THz QCL frequency stabilization techniques.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, S. Vangala, W. Goodhue, A. Danylov, J. Waldman, R. Giles, and W. E. Nixon, “One-half milliwatt 2.33 THz CW QCL operating at 77 K,” Proc. SPIE8261, 826121 (2012).

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. R. Light, R. H. Giles, X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, W. D. Goodhue, and W. E. Nixon, “Long-term frequency and amplitude stability of a solid-nitrogen-cooled, continuous wave THz quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8261, 82610D–1, 82610D-5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

2005

Araki, T.

Barbieri, S.

M. Ravaro, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, K. Blary, J.-F. Lampin, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a frequency comb using a GaAs photomixer,” Opt. Lett.36(20), 3969–3971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baryshev, A.

Beere, H.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Betz, A. L.

Blary, K.

Boreiko, R. T.

Chandrayan, N.

X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, S. Vangala, W. Goodhue, A. Danylov, J. Waldman, R. Giles, and W. E. Nixon, “One-half milliwatt 2.33 THz CW QCL operating at 77 K,” Proc. SPIE8261, 826121 (2012).

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. R. Light, R. H. Giles, X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, W. D. Goodhue, and W. E. Nixon, “Long-term frequency and amplitude stability of a solid-nitrogen-cooled, continuous wave THz quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8261, 82610D–1, 82610D-5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coulombe, M. J.

Cui, M.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Danylov, A.

X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, S. Vangala, W. Goodhue, A. Danylov, J. Waldman, R. Giles, and W. E. Nixon, “One-half milliwatt 2.33 THz CW QCL operating at 77 K,” Proc. SPIE8261, 826121 (2012).

Danylov, A. A.

Dhillon, S. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fischer, M.

Fujimoto, Y.

Gao, J. R.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase Locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatesman, A. J.

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giles, R.

X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, S. Vangala, W. Goodhue, A. Danylov, J. Waldman, R. Giles, and W. E. Nixon, “One-half milliwatt 2.33 THz CW QCL operating at 77 K,” Proc. SPIE8261, 826121 (2012).

Giles, R. H.

Goodhue, W.

X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, S. Vangala, W. Goodhue, A. Danylov, J. Waldman, R. Giles, and W. E. Nixon, “One-half milliwatt 2.33 THz CW QCL operating at 77 K,” Proc. SPIE8261, 826121 (2012).

Goodhue, W. D.

Goyette, T. M.

Graf, U. U.

Hayton, D. J.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J. L.

Hovenier, J. N.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase Locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Q.

Hübers, H.-W.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ihara, A.

Inaba, H.

Jellema, W.

Kao, T.-Y.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, K.

Khanna, S. P.

Khosropanah, P.

Klapwijk, T. M.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase Locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, B.

Kumar, S.

Lampin, J.-F.

Li, J.

Light, A. R.

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. R. Light, R. H. Giles, X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, W. D. Goodhue, and W. E. Nixon, “Long-term frequency and amplitude stability of a solid-nitrogen-cooled, continuous wave THz quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8261, 82610D–1, 82610D-5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Linden, K. J.

Linfield, E. H.

Mahler, L.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maineult, W.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

Minoshima, K.

Nagatsuma, T.

Nakamura, R.

Neal, W. R.

Nixon, W. E.

Paveliev, D. G.

Pavlov, S. G.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, M.

Qian, X.

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. R. Light, R. H. Giles, X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, W. D. Goodhue, and W. E. Nixon, “Long-term frequency and amplitude stability of a solid-nitrogen-cooled, continuous wave THz quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8261, 82610D–1, 82610D-5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, S. Vangala, W. Goodhue, A. Danylov, J. Waldman, R. Giles, and W. E. Nixon, “One-half milliwatt 2.33 THz CW QCL operating at 77 K,” Proc. SPIE8261, 826121 (2012).

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, “Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level,” Opt. Express17(9), 7525–7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabanus, D.

Ravaro, M.

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

Richter, H.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, O.

Ritchie, D.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

M. Ravaro, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, K. Blary, J.-F. Lampin, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a frequency comb using a GaAs photomixer,” Opt. Lett.36(20), 3969–3971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S. C.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

M. Ravaro, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, K. Blary, J.-F. Lampin, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a frequency comb using a GaAs photomixer,” Opt. Lett.36(20), 3969–3971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stutzki, J.

Tredicucci, A.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vangala, S.

X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, S. Vangala, W. Goodhue, A. Danylov, J. Waldman, R. Giles, and W. E. Nixon, “One-half milliwatt 2.33 THz CW QCL operating at 77 K,” Proc. SPIE8261, 826121 (2012).

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vowinkel, B.

Waldman, J.

Walther, C.

Wanke, M. C.

Wiedner, M. C.

Williams, B. S.

Yasui, T.

Yokoyama, S.

Zhang, W.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Submegahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, M. Cui, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, S. Vangala, W. Goodhue, A. Danylov, J. Waldman, R. Giles, and W. E. Nixon, “One-half milliwatt 2.33 THz CW QCL operating at 77 K,” Proc. SPIE8261, 826121 (2012).

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. R. Light, R. H. Giles, X. Qian, N. Chandrayan, W. D. Goodhue, and W. E. Nixon, “Long-term frequency and amplitude stability of a solid-nitrogen-cooled, continuous wave THz quantum cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE8261, 82610D–1, 82610D-5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

Virginia Diodes, Inc., Charlottesville, VA.

Low Noise Quantum Cascade Laser Driver QCL1500, Wavelength Electronics Inc.

N. R. Erickson, “A Schottky-Diode Balanced Mixer for 1.5 THz,” ISSTT Groningen, 221–223 (2008).

S. Martin, B. Nakamura, A. Fung, P. Smith, J. Bruston, A. Maestrini, F. Maiwald, P. Siegel, E. Schlecht, and I. Mehdi, “Fabrication of 200 to 2700 GHz multiplier devices using GaAs and metal membranes,” in Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., Piscataway, NJ, (IEEE 2001), pp. 1641–1644.

N. R. Erickson and T. M. Goyette, “1.5 THz low noise Schottky-diode mixers.” http://www.sofia.usra.edu/Science/workshops/asilomar_docs/Poster_3.7_Erickson.pdf .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 2.32 THz QCL output power as a function of the QCL mounting plate temperature. (b) Spectral intensity of the 2.32 THz QCL in CW mode at different applied voltages at solid nitrogen temperature (56-59 K).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2-D mode profile of the 2.32 THz QCL without (a) and with (b) a hollow dielectric waveguide measured at distance of 110 mm from the exit of the waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of the balanced mixer showing the WR10 waveguide that is used as the LO input as well as the LO feed horn that is not used for harmonic mixing. The horn on the left side is used for the QCL signal input. (b) Photograph of the device (taken from Ref. 18). Green areas are the GaAs substrate and gold areas are metal on the MMIC chip. (c) Photograph of the mixer block with the W-band waveguide input.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Circuit configuration used in frequency locking the QCL to the 21st harmonic of the microwave source (M1). The modulated microwave source (M2) and 21.4 MHz bandpass filter provided an error signal that stabilized the intermediate frequency (IF) and locked the QCL to the microwave reference source.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Long-term frequency fluctuations of the 3 GHz beat signal recorded during 30-min time interval of the free-running (red curve) and locked (blue curve) QCL. (b) Long-term (3 hours) frequency fluctuations of the 3 GHz beat signal recorded when the laser was stabilized.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency spectra of the 3 GHz beat note recorded from the spectrum analyzer (resolution bandwidth of 1 kHz) under locked conditions with 400 ms scan time (the spectrum was averaged over 100 scans).

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