Abstract

Based on the recently-introduced Surface Nanoscale Axial Photonics (SNAP) platform, we demonstrate a chain of 30 coupled SNAP microresonators spaced by 50 micron along an optical fiber, which is fabricated with the precision of 0.7 angstrom and a standard deviation of 0.12 angstrom in effective microresonator radius. To the best of our knowledge, this result surpasses those achieved in other super-low-loss photonic technologies developed to date by two orders of magnitude. The chain exhibits bandgaps in both the discrete and continuous spectrum in excellent agreement with theory. The developed method enables robust fabrication of SNAP devices with sub-angstrom precision.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(2), 182–183 (2000).
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2012 (5)

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky and Y. Dulashko, “Radius variation of optical fibers with angstrom accuracy,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 4006–4008 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Cooper, G. Gupta, M. A. Schneider, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Mookherjea, “Statistics of light transport in 235-ring silicon coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Express18(25), 26505–26516 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K.

Agarwal, A.

Assefa, S.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. L.

De La Rue, R.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deshmukh, R.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

DiMarcello, F. V.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, T. E.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dulashko, Y.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Eich, M.

Ferrari, C.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

Fleming, J. W.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gong, T.

Green, W. M. J.

Grillanda, S.

Gupta, G.

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Kabakova, I.

Kimerling, L. C.

Knight, J. C.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lines, M. E.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Litchinitser, N. M.

Liu, X.

Luan, F.

Luo, J.

Magi, E.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E. M.

Mookherjea, S.

Morichetti, F.

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. Yu.

Prorok, S.

Reed, W. A.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, P. I.

Samarelli, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M. A.

Sekaric, L.

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Singh, V.

Soccolich, C.

Sorel, M.

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Tanabe, T.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T. F.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Velha, P.

Vlasov, Y.

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Westbrook, P. S.

Wisk, P.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Xia, F. N.

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, “Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(1), 19–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes—part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Other (1)

M. Sumetsky, “Localization of light in an optical fiber with nanoscale radius variation,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest, postdeadline paper PDA_8.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the setup for iterative fabrication of SNAP devices. (a) – Exposure section; (b) – characterization section.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental characterization and theoretical modeling of the resonant transmission amplitude of the fabricated 30 coupled microresonator chain. The surface plots of experimental data are obtained with 1.3 pm resolution in wavelength and 10 μm resolution along the fiber axis. (a) – The spectral surface plot of the originally fabricated microresonator chain. (b) – The spectral surface plot of this chain after calibration exposure. (c) – The spectral surface plot of the corrected chain. (d) – The spectral surface plot of the corrected chain obtained theoretically. White solid curve is the calculated ERV. (e) – The spectral surface plot of the transmission band magnified from Fig. 2(c). (f) – Theoretical modeling of the effect of effective radius perturbations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The plot of BCA vertical coordinates characterizing the nonuniformity of the microresonator chain. Curve 1 and 2 shows the positions of BCAs corresponding to the microresonators in Fig. 2(a) and Fig. 2(b), respectively. Curve 3 is the difference between curves 1 and 2, which is used for calibration of the shots.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ r eff (z)=Δ r 0 { exp( z 2 ζ 2 ), z<0, a 2 2 π 2 ζ 2 ( cos( 2πz a )1 )+1, 0<z<(N1)a, exp[ (z(N1)a) 2 ζ 2 ], z>(N1)a.
Ψ zz +(E(λ)V(z))Ψ=0,E(λ)=κΔλ/ λ res ,V(z)=κΔ r eff (z)/ r 0 ,κ=8 (πn/ λ res ) 2 ,
T(λ,z)= T 0 i|C | 2 G(λ,z,z) 1+DG(λ,z,z) ,

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