Abstract

Based on the open-aperture Z-scan measurement, we firstly uncovered the saturable absorption property of the topological insulator (TI): Bi2Se3. A high absolute modulation depth up to 98% and a saturation intensity of 0.49 GWcm−2 were identified. By incorporating this novel saturable absorber material into an erbium-doped fiber laser, wavelength tunable soliton operation was experimentally demonstrated. Our result indicates that like the atomic layer graphene, the topological insulator Bi2Se3 could also operate as an effective saturable absorber for the passive mode locking of lasers at the telecommunication band.

© 2012 OSA

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Corrections

Chujun Zhao, Yanhong Zou, Yu Chen, Zhiteng Wang, Shunbin Lu, Han Zhang, Shuangchun Wen, and Dingyuan Tang, "Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker: erratum," Opt. Express 21, 444-444 (2013)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-21-1-444

References

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2012 (5)

2011 (5)

S. Y. F. Zhao, C. Beekman, L. J. Sandilands, J. E. J. Bashucky, D. Kwok, N. Lee, A. D. LaForge, S. W. Cheong, and K. S. Burch, “Fabrication and characterization of topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of Few-Quintuple Layer Topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a graphene-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.36(20), 4008–4010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, Y. Z. Wu, X. P. Hao, J. L. He, and K. J. Yang, “Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultra-fast-pulse solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1948–1950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (10)

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, K. He, C. Z. Chang, C. L. Song, L. L. Wang, X. Chen, J. F. Jia, Z. Fang, X. Dai, W. Y. Shan, S. Q. Shen, Q. Niu, X. L. Qi, S. C. Zhang, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Crossover of the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 to the two-dimensional limit,” Nat. Phys.6(9), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Peng, K. Lai, D. Kong, S. Meister, Y. Chen, X. L. Qi, S. C. Zhang, Z. X. Shen, and Y. Cui, “Aharonov-Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 225–229 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, and R. J. Knize, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys.5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys.5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton Thulium-Doped Fiber Laser with Carbon Nanotube Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(3), 128–130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 microm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. M. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett.28(8), 806–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

Aitchison, B.

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bansil, A.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys.5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, and R. J. Knize, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashucky, J. E. J.

S. Y. F. Zhao, C. Beekman, L. J. Sandilands, J. E. J. Bashucky, D. Kwok, N. Lee, A. D. LaForge, S. W. Cheong, and K. S. Burch, “Fabrication and characterization of topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beekman, C.

S. Y. F. Zhao, C. Beekman, L. J. Sandilands, J. E. J. Bashucky, D. Kwok, N. Lee, A. D. LaForge, S. W. Cheong, and K. S. Burch, “Fabrication and characterization of topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boguslawski, J.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. P.

Burch, K. S.

S. Y. F. Zhao, C. Beekman, L. J. Sandilands, J. E. J. Bashucky, D. Kwok, N. Lee, A. D. LaForge, S. W. Cheong, and K. S. Burch, “Fabrication and characterization of topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys.5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Z.

Y. Zhang, K. He, C. Z. Chang, C. L. Song, L. L. Wang, X. Chen, J. F. Jia, Z. Fang, X. Dai, W. Y. Shan, S. Q. Shen, Q. Niu, X. L. Qi, S. C. Zhang, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Crossover of the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 to the two-dimensional limit,” Nat. Phys.6(9), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Checkelsky, J. G.

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Y. Zhang, K. He, C. Z. Chang, C. L. Song, L. L. Wang, X. Chen, J. F. Jia, Z. Fang, X. Dai, W. Y. Shan, S. Q. Shen, Q. Niu, X. L. Qi, S. C. Zhang, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Crossover of the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 to the two-dimensional limit,” Nat. Phys.6(9), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

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[CrossRef]

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H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2166–2168 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a graphene-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.36(20), 4008–4010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, Y. Z. Wu, X. P. Hao, J. L. He, and K. J. Yang, “Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultra-fast-pulse solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1948–1950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 microm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. Y. Set, H. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2003, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

A. Cabasse, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Oudar, “High modulation depth SESAM for high power dissipative soliton in an Erbium-doped fiber laser,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CJ10_5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM images, and (b) XRD diffraction pattern of as-grown Bi2Se3 nano-platelets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The near infrared linear absorption spectra of TI. (b) A typical Z-scan peak curve of TI: Bi2Se3 at 1550 nm. Insert: Z-scan experimental setup. (c) The corresponding nonlinear saturable absorption curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the fiber laser. PC: polarization controller. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. EDF: erbium doped fiber. SMF: single mode fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The mode locked soliton spectrum. Its corresponding autocorrelation trace (b) and oscilloscope trace (c). (d) Long term optical spectra measured at a 4-hour interval over 2-days.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Soliton spectra obtained from the TI SA mode-locked tunable fiber laser.

Equations (1)

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T=Aexp( ΔT 1+ I I sat )

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