Abstract

We demonstrate error-free 80km transmission by a silicon carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder modulator at 10Gbps and the power penalty is as low as 1.15dB. The devices were evaluated through the bit-error-rate characterizations under the system-level analysis. The silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator was also analyzed comparatively with a lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator in back-to-back transmission and long-haul transmission, respectively, and verified the negative chirp parameter of the silicon modulator through the experiment. The result of low power penalty indicates a practical application for the silicon modulator in the middle- or long-distance transmission systems.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
  3. I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  11. A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-Distance Demonstration and Modeling of Low-Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 819–821 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
  18. A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. S. André and J. L. Pinto, “Optimising the Operation Characteristics of a LiNbO3 based Mach-Zehnder Modulator for 10 Gbit/s Lightwave Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 22, 767–769 (2001).
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2012 (4)

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “12.5 Gb/s carrier-injection silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with high optical bandwidth,” Proc. Group IV, 129–131 (2012).

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3209–3218 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Chirp and Dispersion Tolerance of a Single-Drive Push–Pull Silicon Modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-Distance Demonstration and Modeling of Low-Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, Y. Zhao, J. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Jiang, “Chirp characteristics of silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator under small-signal modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(7), 1011–1017 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. S. André and J. L. Pinto, “Optimising the Operation Characteristics of a LiNbO3 based Mach-Zehnder Modulator for 10 Gbit/s Lightwave Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 22, 767–769 (2001).

1991 (1)

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Alduino, A.

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[Crossref]

André, P. S.

P. S. André and J. L. Pinto, “Optimising the Operation Characteristics of a LiNbO3 based Mach-Zehnder Modulator for 10 Gbit/s Lightwave Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 22, 767–769 (2001).

Ang, K. W.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Asghari, M.

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Chirp and Dispersion Tolerance of a Single-Drive Push–Pull Silicon Modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. K.

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Chirp and Dispersion Tolerance of a Single-Drive Push–Pull Silicon Modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Cunningham, J. E.

Ding, J.

Dong, P.

Fang, Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Ji, R.

Jiang, X.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemmerer, C. T.

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kern, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Korotky, S. K.

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kwong, D. L.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lentine, A. L.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-Distance Demonstration and Modeling of Low-Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, J. T. S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Liow, T. Y.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Lo, G. Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Manipatruni, S.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Min, R.

Minford, W. J.

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moser, D. T.

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nagel, J.

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophir, N.

Palermo, S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Paniccia, M.

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Pinto, J. L.

P. S. André and J. L. Pinto, “Optimising the Operation Characteristics of a LiNbO3 based Mach-Zehnder Modulator for 10 Gbit/s Lightwave Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 22, 767–769 (2001).

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, J. F.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Trotter, D. C.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-Distance Demonstration and Modeling of Low-Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Veselka, J. J.

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Watts, M. R.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-Distance Demonstration and Modeling of Low-Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Xiong, Y. Z.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, L.

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, M. B.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

Zhu, W.

Zortman, W. A.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-Distance Demonstration and Modeling of Low-Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-Distance Demonstration and Modeling of Low-Power Silicon Microdisk Modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Chirp and Dispersion Tolerance of a Single-Drive Push–Pull Silicon Modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion Penalty Reduction Using an Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(10), 916–918 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

P. S. André and J. L. Pinto, “Optimising the Operation Characteristics of a LiNbO3 based Mach-Zehnder Modulator for 10 Gbit/s Lightwave Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 22, 767–769 (2001).

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. Group (1)

L. Yang, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “12.5 Gb/s carrier-injection silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator with high optical bandwidth,” Proc. Group IV, 129–131 (2012).

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic–photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 6–15 (2006).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

N. Kirman, M. Kirman, R. K. Dokania, J. F. Martinez, A. B. Apsel, M. A. Watkins, and D. H. Albonesi, “Leveraging optical technology in future bus-based chip multiprocessors,” Proc. International Symposium on Microarchitecture, 492–503 (2006).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ Wiley, 1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the cross section of the phase shifter. (b) Schematic of Si MZM. (c) Spectra of the Si MZM with different voltages.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup diagrams of the Si MZM, (a) for different modulation rates. (b) for different distance transmission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eye diagram with different modulation rates under back-to-back transmission, Si MZM (A) 4Gps, (B) 8Gbps, (C) 10Gbps, (D) 12Gbps; LiNbO3 (E) 4Gbps, (F) 8Gbps, (G) 10Gbps, (H) 12Gbps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) BER curves vs. ROP with different modulation rates, (b) ROP vs. modulation rates under 10−10 BER.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams in long-haul transmission for different distances, Si MZM (A) 0km, (B) 26km, (C) 53km, (D) 80km; LiNbO3 (E) 0km, (F) 26km, (G) 53km, (H) 80km.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimentally-measured system-level performance characterization of varying propagation distances compared Si MZM and LiNbO3 MZM at 10Gbps modulation rate. (a) BER curves as the function of ROP; (b) ROP vs. propagation distance under 10−10BER.

Metrics