Abstract

We demonstrate the inscription of embedded waveguides, anti-waveguides and Bragg gratings by use of intense femtosecond (fs) UV laser pulses at 266nm in pure fused silica, and for the first time, in bulk fused quartz and ZBLAN glasses. The magnitude of induced index changes, depends, besides pulse energy and translation speed, largely on writing depth and varies from ~10−4 for smooth modifications to ~10−3 for damaged structures. The obtained results are promising as they present the feasibility of fabrication of short (< 0.2μm) period first-order fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for applications such as in realization of all-fiber lasers operating at short wavelengths.

© 2012 OSA

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2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

M. Zeller, T. Lasser, H. G. Limberger, and G. Maze, “UV-induced index changes in non-doped fluoride glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(2), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, T.-E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, “Photosensitivity of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN fluoride glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1357–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in mono-mode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(10), 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1955 (1)

B. M. Levy and J. H. O. Varley, “Radiation induced colour centres in Fused Quartz,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B68(4), 223–233 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Androz, G.

Bartelt, H.

Barty, A.

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

Bennion, I.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(2), 025305–025310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, J.

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, E. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, “Ultraviolet-induced permanent Bragg gratings in cerium-doped ZBLAN glasses or optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.19(17), 1269–1271 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernier, M.

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an Ar-F excimer laser,” Opt. Lett.19(6), 387–389 (1994).
[PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in mono-mode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(10), 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boj, S.

Bolger, J. A.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, P.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(2), 025305–025310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Brückner, S.

Chan, J. W.

Chekalin, S.

Chen, K. P.

Chin, S. L.

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Delevaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, E. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, “Ultraviolet-induced permanent Bragg gratings in cerium-doped ZBLAN glasses or optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.19(17), 1269–1271 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

Ding, H.

Dong, L.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dragomir, A.

Dubov, M.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(2), 025305–025310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, D.

Fokine, M.

Franke, M.

Friebele, E. J.

G. M. Williams, T.-E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, “Photosensitivity of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN fluoride glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1357–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. B.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Grobnic, D.

Hand, D. P.

Henderson, G.

Herman, P. R.

Hibino, Y.

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an Ar-F excimer laser,” Opt. Lett.19(6), 387–389 (1994).
[PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in mono-mode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(10), 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hnatovsky, C.

Huser, T.

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an Ar-F excimer laser,” Opt. Lett.19(6), 387–389 (1994).
[PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in mono-mode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(10), 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kompanets, V.

Kondo, Y.

Krol, D. M.

Kryukov, P. G.

Larionov, Y. V.

Lasser, T.

Levy, B. M.

B. M. Levy and J. H. O. Varley, “Radiation induced colour centres in Fused Quartz,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B68(4), 223–233 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Lindner, E.

Liu, W.

Livitziis, M.

Lu, P.

Magi, E. C.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an Ar-F excimer laser,” Opt. Lett.19(6), 387–389 (1994).
[PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in mono-mode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(10), 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Marshall, G. D.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matveets, Y.

Maze, G.

Meltz, G.

Merzbacher, C. I.

G. M. Williams, T.-E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, “Photosensitivity of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN fluoride glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1357–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

Misawa, H.

H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monerie, M.

Morey, W. W.

Nguyen, N. T.

Niay, P.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, E. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, “Ultraviolet-induced permanent Bragg gratings in cerium-doped ZBLAN glasses or optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.19(17), 1269–1271 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(2), 025305–025310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, and E. M. Dianov, “Inscription of fiber Bragg gratings by ultraviolet femtosecond radiation,” Opt. Lett.28(22), 2171–2173 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nouchi, K.

Nugent, K. A.

Paganin, D.

Pissadakis, S.

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, E. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, “Ultraviolet-induced permanent Bragg gratings in cerium-doped ZBLAN glasses or optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.19(17), 1269–1271 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poumellec, B.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S.

Roberts, A.

Rothhardt, M. W.

Russell, P. S. J.

Rybaltovsky, A. A.

Saliminia, A.

Sheng, Y.

Smektala, F.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C. W.

Sramek, R.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stainvurzel, P.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, H. B.

H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, E. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, “Ultraviolet-induced permanent Bragg gratings in cerium-doped ZBLAN glasses or optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.19(17), 1269–1271 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R.

Tsai, T.-E.

G. M. Williams, T.-E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, “Photosensitivity of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN fluoride glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1357–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Unruh, J.

Vallée, R.

Varley, J. H. O.

B. M. Levy and J. H. O. Varley, “Radiation induced colour centres in Fused Quartz,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B68(4), 223–233 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. B.

Watanabe, M.

H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G. M.

G. M. Williams, T.-E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, “Photosensitivity of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN fluoride glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1357–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, E. X.

Xie, W. X.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zagorulko, K. A.

Zayats, A. V.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(2), 025305–025310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in mono-mode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(10), 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. B. Fu, G. D. Marshall, J. A. Bolger, P. Stainvurzel, E. C. Magi, M. J. Withford, and B. J. Eggleton, “Femtosecond laser writing Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett.41(11), 638–640 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, T.-E. Tsai, C. I. Merzbacher, and E. J. Friebele, “Photosensitivity of rare-earth-doped ZBLAN fluoride glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1357–1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Taylor, and C. Hnatovsky, “Vacuum-ultraviolet laser-induced refractive index change and birefringence in standard optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(9), 1969–1977 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, “Bragg gratings written in all-SiO2 and Ge-doped core fibers with 800-nm femtosecond radiation and a phase mask,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 94–100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeller, T. Lasser, H. G. Limberger, and G. Maze, “UV-induced index changes in non-doped fluoride glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(2), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids277(1), 39–44 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, D. N. Nikogosyan, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Point-by-point inscription of 250nm period structure in bulk fused silica by tightly focused femtosecond UV pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.10(2), 025305–025310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

H. B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (14)

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, and E. M. Dianov, “Inscription of fiber Bragg gratings by ultraviolet femtosecond radiation,” Opt. Lett.28(22), 2171–2173 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett.14(15), 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193-nm light from an Ar-F excimer laser,” Opt. Lett.19(6), 387–389 (1994).
[PubMed]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, E. X. Xie, H. Poignant, S. Boj, E. Delevaque, and M. Monerie, “Ultraviolet-induced permanent Bragg gratings in cerium-doped ZBLAN glasses or optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.19(17), 1269–1271 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(5), 454–456 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Livitziis and S. Pissadakis, “Bragg grating recording in low-defect optical fibers using ultraviolet femtosecond radiation and a double-phase mask interferometer,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1449–1451 (2008).
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A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, D. Paganin, and A. Roberts, “Quantitative optical phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett.23(11), 817–819 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.26(21), 1726–1728 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Albert, M. Fokine, and W. Margulis, “Grating formation in pure silica-core fibers,” Opt. Lett.27(10), 809–811 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, “Fiber Bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation,” Opt. Lett.28(12), 995–997 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1591–1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. B (1)

B. M. Levy and J. H. O. Varley, “Radiation induced colour centres in Fused Quartz,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B68(4), 223–233 (1955).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setups for (a) waveguide and (b) grating inscription, O.L.: objective lens, H: half-wave plate, P: polarizer, C.L.: cylindrical lens, P.M.: phase mask. X: sample translation direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index change profiles of the tracks written in a depth of 700μm at 1.0 μJ and 20 μm/s obtained by QPM method in (a) fused quartz, (b) fused silica and (c) ZBLAN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase contrast microscope pictures of the tracks written in a depth of 700μm at 1.0 μJ and 20 μm/s in (a) fused quartz, (b) fused silica, (c) ZBLAN, (d) the cross section of a track written in silica, (e) the microscope image of a damaged track written at 200μm in depth at 1.0 μJ and 20 μm/s in fused silica. Lower photo (f) shows the track’s cross section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of refractive index change as a function of scan speed for three different pulse energies for the tracks written 700μm in depth inside fused silica glass.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured two-photon absorption losses at 266nm versus relative position from the cylindrical lens focal plane for a 1.5mm thick UV-grade fused silica substrate at 100mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical microscope picture of a grating written in silica, (b) SEM image of a 3.0μm pitch grating in silica after polishing and etching with 20% HF acid for 15min, (c) microscope photograph of a grating written in fused quartz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission spectra of the exposed and unexposed fused quartz sample before and after thermal annealing. Abrupt spectral jumps around 350nm and 800nm are due to switching of detectors in the spectrometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of index modulation derived from the measured diffraction efficiency in terms of exposure time in ZBLAN.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmission spectrum for an FBG written in H2-free SMF-28 fiber.

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