Abstract

The optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) were investigated using the theoretical model based on the kp method. Numerical results show that there is valence subband coupling which can influence the peak emission wavelength and emission intensity for TE and TM polarization components from Al-rich AlGaN/AlN QWs. Especially the valence subband coupling could be strong enough when CH1 is close to HH1 and LH1 subbands to modulate the critical Al content switching dominant emissions from TE to TM polarization. It is believed that the valence subband coupling may give important influence on polarization properties of spontaneous emissions and should be considered in designing high efficiency AlGaN-based ultraviolet (UV) LEDs.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ≈240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041126 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Are AlN and GaN substrates useful for the growth of non-polar nitride films for UV emission? The oscillator strength perspective,” Phys. Status Solidi B246(6), 1184–1187 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. A. Yamaguchi, “Valence band engineering for remarkable enhancement of surface emission in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(6), 2364–2366 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “226-273 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on multilayer AlN buffers on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(9), 2969–2971 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (6)

S. H. Park, “Optical gain characteristics of non-polar Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys.110(6), 063105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, A. A. Yamaguchi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Impact of nonpolar AlGaN quantum wells on deep ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(1), 011902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, and N. Kamata, “222nm deep-ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light-emitting diode with vertical emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Theoretical investigation of optical polarization properties in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells with various substrate orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Dang and Y. R. Wu, “Optical polarization anisotropy of tensile strained InGaN/AlInN quantum wells for TM mode lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 083108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented AlxGa1−xN/AlN quantum wells (x>0.69),” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121308 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Are AlN and GaN substrates useful for the growth of non-polar nitride films for UV emission? The oscillator strength perspective,” Phys. Status Solidi B246(6), 1184–1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Valence band engineering for remarkable enhancement of surface emission in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(6), 2364–2366 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “226-273 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on multilayer AlN buffers on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(9), 2969–2971 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ≈240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1252–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “Effective-mass Hamiltonian for strained wurtzite GaN and analytical solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asif Khan, M.

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banal, R. G.

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(1), 011902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented AlxGa1−xN/AlN quantum wells (x>0.69),” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121308 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, J.

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Are AlN and GaN substrates useful for the growth of non-polar nitride films for UV emission? The oscillator strength perspective,” Phys. Status Solidi B246(6), 1184–1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “Effective-mass Hamiltonian for strained wurtzite GaN and analytical solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. X.

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chitnis, A.

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chua, C.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “Effective-mass Hamiltonian for strained wurtzite GaN and analytical solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dang, P. Y.

P. Y. Dang and Y. R. Wu, “Optical polarization anisotropy of tensile strained InGaN/AlInN quantum wells for TM mode lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 083108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Della Sala, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, A.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, G.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Einfeldt, S.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, D.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, S.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(1), 011902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kojima, A. A. Yamaguchi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Impact of nonpolar AlGaN quantum wells on deep ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented AlxGa1−xN/AlN quantum wells (x>0.69),” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121308 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Are AlN and GaN substrates useful for the growth of non-polar nitride films for UV emission? The oscillator strength perspective,” Phys. Status Solidi B246(6), 1184–1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

J. Bhattacharyya, S. Ghosh, and H. T. Grahn, “Are AlN and GaN substrates useful for the growth of non-polar nitride films for UV emission? The oscillator strength perspective,” Phys. Status Solidi B246(6), 1184–1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, and N. Kamata, “222nm deep-ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light-emitting diode with vertical emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “226-273 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on multilayer AlN buffers on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(9), 2969–2971 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jia, C.

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1252–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, and N. Kamata, “222nm deep-ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light-emitting diode with vertical emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “226-273 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on multilayer AlN buffers on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(9), 2969–2971 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Kojima, A. A. Yamaguchi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Impact of nonpolar AlGaN quantum wells on deep ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(1), 011902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented AlxGa1−xN/AlN quantum wells (x>0.69),” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121308 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, H.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ≈240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1252–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, A.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, K.

K. Kojima, A. A. Yamaguchi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Impact of nonpolar AlGaN quantum wells on deep ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolbe, T.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1252–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1252–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. M.

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(9), 093102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mair, R. A.

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1252–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maruska, H. P.

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakarmi, M. L.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, K. B.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naveh, D.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neugebauer, J.

P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, E.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Kojima, A. A. Yamaguchi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Impact of nonpolar AlGaN quantum wells on deep ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, and N. Kamata, “222nm deep-ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light-emitting diode with vertical emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “226-273 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on multilayer AlN buffers on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(9), 2969–2971 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norimatsu, J.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nukui, T.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ≈240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, T.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “226-273 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on multilayer AlN buffers on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(9), 2969–2971 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, “Optical gain characteristics of non-polar Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys.110(6), 063105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z.

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qteish, A.

P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schef?er, M.

P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Senuma, M.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ≈240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, T. K.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. H.

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takano, T.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, R.

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Towe, E.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsubaki, K.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, P.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weyers, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winkelnkemper, M.

P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. R.

P. Y. Dang and Y. R. Wu, “Optical polarization anisotropy of tensile strained InGaN/AlInN quantum wells for TM mode lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 083108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiu, X.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A. A.

K. Kojima, A. A. Yamaguchi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Impact of nonpolar AlGaN quantum wells on deep ultraviolet laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Theoretical investigation of optical polarization properties in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells with various substrate orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Valence band engineering for remarkable enhancement of surface emission in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(6), 2364–2366 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yatabe, T.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “226-273 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on multilayer AlN buffers on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(9), 2969–2971 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous emission and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. Zheng, and G. Edwards, “Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain,” J. Appl. Phys.106(2), 023714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, and N. Kamata, “222nm deep-ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light-emitting diode with vertical emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

P. Rinke, M. Scheffler, A. Qteish, M. Winkelnkemper, D. Bimberg, and J. Neugebauer, “Band gap and band parameters of InN and GaN from quasiparticle energy calculations based on exact-exchange density-functional theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jia, T. Yu, R. Tao, X. Hu, Z. Yang, Z. Qin, Z. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Spontaneous luminescence polarizations of wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1252–1254 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. Asif Khan, “Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2175–2177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ≈240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081121 (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The valence subband structures of (a) Al0.81Ga0.19N/AlN QW, (b) Al0.83Ga0.17N/AlN QW and (c) Al0.9Ga0.1N/AlN QW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Envelope wavefunctions of the three topmost valence subband for Al0.83Ga0.17N/AlN QW at (a)-(c) kt = 0 nm−1 and (d)-(f) kt = 1.0 nm−1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-c) Momentum matrix elements versus kt and (d-f) spontaneous emission rate versus kt for the conduction band to the three topmost valence subband transition in Al0.83Ga0.17N/AlN QW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spontaneous emission proportion of transitions from conduction band to the three top valence subbands for (a) Al0.81Ga0.19N/AlN, (b) Al0.83Ga0.17N/AlN and (c) Al0.9Ga0.1N/AlN QWs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The spontaneous emission spectra of Al0.81Ga0.19N/AlN, Al0.83Ga0.17N/AlN and Al0.9Ga0.1N/AlN QWs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated Al contents for polarization switching between TE and TM polarization emission of AlGaN/AlN QWs with and without valence subband coupling.

Equations (5)

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[ 2 2 ( k t 2 m e t + k z 2 m e z )+ E c 0 ( z )+ P cε ( z )+ P E (z) ] φ n ( z; k t )= E n c ( k t ) φ n ( z; k t )
[ H 3×3 U ( k t ; k z =i z )+ I 3×3 ( E v 0 ( z )+ P E (z) ) ][ g m ( 1 ) ( k t ;z ) g m ( 2 ) ( k t ;z ) g m ( 3 ) ( k t ;z ) ]= E m U ( k t )[ g m ( 1 ) ( k t ;z ) g m ( 2 ) ( k t ;z ) g m ( 3 ) ( k t ;z ) ]
{ |1= α 1 2 | ( X+iY ) +α 1 2 | ( XiY ) |2=β 1 2 | ( XiY ) + β 1 2 | ( X+iY ) |3= β | Z +β| Z
{ | ( M x ) nm ( k t ) | 2 = | ( M y ) nm ( k t ) | 2 = 1 4 ( | dz φ n S| p x |X g m ( 1 ) | 2 + | dz φ n S| p x |X g m ( 2 ) | 2 ) | ( M z ) nm ( k t ) | 2 = 1 2 | dz φ n S| p z |Z g m ( 3 ) | 2
{ r sp TE ( ω )=C 2 L z n,m k t d k t 2π ( | ( M x ) nm ( k t ) | 2 + | ( M y ) nm ( k t ) | 2 ) Γ/ ( 2π ) f n c ( k t )( 1 f m v ( k t ) ) ( E nm cv ( k t )hω ) 2 + ( Γ/2 ) 2 r sp TM ( ω )=C 2 L z n,m k t d k t 2π | ( M z ) nm ( k t ) | 2 Γ/ ( 2π ) f n c ( k t )( 1 f m v ( k t ) ) ( E nm cv ( k t )hω ) 2 + ( Γ/2 ) 2

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