A high-sensitivity optical time-domain reflectometry based on Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in polarization-maintaining fibers, where a single-end access to a fiber under test is applied with co-propagation of pump and probe pulses for the operation of BDG. Distributed measurements of the BDG spectra are presented with 80 cm spatial resolution in 935 m range, showing strain and temperature sensitivities of 1.37 MHz/με and −57.48 MHz/°C, respectively.

©2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Distributed measurement of hydrostatic pressure based on Brillouin dynamic grating in polarization maintaining fibers

Yong Hyun Kim, Hong Kwon, Jeongjun Kim, and Kwang Yong Song
Opt. Express 24(19) 21399-21406 (2016)

Temperature-strain discrimination in distributed optical fiber sensing using phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry

Xin Lu, Marcelo A. Soto, and Luc Thévenaz
Opt. Express 25(14) 16059-16071 (2017)


  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Optical time-domain measurement of Brillouin dynamic grating spectrum in a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1381–1383 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. Y. Song, K. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Tunable optical delays based on Brillouin dynamic grating in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10344–10349 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Truly distributed birefringence measurement of polarization-maintaining fibers based on transient Brillouin grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 193–195 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Complete discrimination of strain and temperature using Brillouin frequency shift and birefringence in a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1248–1255 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Y. Song and H. J. Yoon, “High-resolution Brillouin optical time domain analysis based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 52–54 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thévenaz, “Time-domain distributed sensor with 1 cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2062–2067 (2010).
  8. D. P. Zhou, Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Four-wave mixing analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating in a polarization-maintaining fiber: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20785–20798 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. Y. Song, “Operation of Brillouin dynamic grating in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4686–4688 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Sancho, N. Primerov, S. Chin, Y. Antman, A. Zadok, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6157–6162 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Antman, N. Primerov, J. Sancho, L. Thevenaz, and A. Zadok, “Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7807–7821 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K. Y. Song, “Effects of induced birefringence on Brillouin dynamic gratings in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2229–2231 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd Ed. (Academic Press, 1995).
  14. R. Bernini, A. Minardo, and L. Zeni, “Dynamic strain measurement in optical fibers by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2613–2615 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

Antman, Y.

Bao, X.

Bernini, R.

Chen, L.

Chin, S.

Dong, Y.

He, Z.

Hotate, K.

Lee, K.

Lee, S. B.

Minardo, A.

Primerov, N.

Sales, S.

Sancho, J.

Song, K. Y.

Thevenaz, L.

Thévenaz, L.

Yoon, H. J.

Zadok, A.

Zeni, L.

Zhou, D. P.

Zou, W.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd Ed. (Academic Press, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.

Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of (a) ordinary BOTDR, and (b) BDG-OTDR: PBS, polarization beam splitter; PD, photo detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the BDG-OTDR: LD, laser diode; EDFA, Er-doped fiber amplifier; EOM, electro-optic modulator; PBS, polarization beam splitter; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; DAQ, data acquisition module.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Oscilloscope traces of the pump and the probe pulses measured at the end of the FUT (b) Reflection spectra from the FUT measured by an optical spectrum analyzer located after EDFA3. The black and the gray curves correspond to the cases of the probe in and out of the BDG spectrum, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Trace examples at different Δf’s in distributed measurements of the BDG spectra by BDG-OTDR. (b) 3D-distribution of the measured BDG spectra along the FUT. The inset is the BDG spectra near the front (26 m) and the rear (888 m) ends. Note z-axis corresponds to the signal amplitude. (c) The maximum amplitude of the BDG spectrum according to position. Note that the red curve is the result of exponential fit.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Distribution map of Δν obtained by the BDG-OTDR. (b) Zoomed view near the 1 m test section (dashed box in (a)) with different strain applied (0 ~200 με). (c) Shifts of Δν from the first measurement (0 με). (d) Zoomed view of the dashed box in (c).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The BDG spectra (top) and the shift of Δν (bottom) of the 1 m test section measured by BDG-OTDR according to (a) temperature, and (b) strain. Note that the red line is the result of linear fit for each.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S P pump 2 P probe w pump w probe
P th = 21 A eff g B L eff
Δν= Δn n g ν