Abstract

A surface-illuminated photoconductive detector based on Ge0.91Sn0.09 quantum wells with Ge barriers grown on a silicon substrate is demonstrated. Photodetection up to 2.2µm is achieved with a responsivity of 0.1 A/W for 5V bias. The spectral absorption characteristics are analyzed as a function of the GeSn/Ge heterostructure parameters. This work demonstrates that GeSn/Ge heterostructures can be used to developed SOI waveguide integrated photodetectors for short-wave infrared applications.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer hetero-structures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
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  2. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Werner, M. Oehme, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3361–3364 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z–SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Krijn, “Heterojunction band offsets and effective masses in III-V quaternary alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.6(1), 27–31 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. R. D’Costa, J. Tolle, J. Xie, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Transport properties of doped GeSn alloys,” AIP Conf. Proc.1199, 57–58 (2008).
  17. R. Soref, J. Hendrickson, and J. W. Cleary, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared plasmonic-photonics using heavily doped n-Ge/Ge and n-GeSn/GeSn heterostructures,” Opt. Express20(4), 3814–3824 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/Ge/
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    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Zeng and L. Hanssen, “Calibration of the spectral radiant power responsivity of windowed pyroelectric radiometers from 785 nm to 14 μm,” Proc. SPIE7082, 70820Y (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband Transitions in SnxGe1-x Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(10), 1937–1940 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (6)

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3361–3364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soref, J. Hendrickson, and J. W. Cleary, “Mid- to long-wavelength infrared plasmonic-photonics using heavily doped n-Ge/Ge and n-GeSn/GeSn heterostructures,” Opt. Express20(4), 3814–3824 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, G. Roelkens, and G. Roelkens, “Study of evanescently-coupled and grating-assisted GaInAsSb photodiodes integrated on a silicon photonic chip,” Opt. Express20(11), 11665–11672 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z–SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Zeng and L. Hanssen, “Calibration of the spectral radiant power responsivity of windowed pyroelectric radiometers from 785 nm to 14 μm,” Proc. SPIE7082, 70820Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, J. Tolle, J. Xie, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Transport properties of doped GeSn alloys,” AIP Conf. Proc.1199, 57–58 (2008).

2004 (2)

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer hetero-structures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband Transitions in SnxGe1-x Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(10), 1937–1940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Krijn, “Heterojunction band offsets and effective masses in III-V quaternary alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.6(1), 27–31 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband Transitions in SnxGe1-x Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(10), 1937–1940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beeler, R.

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beeler, R. T.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bender, H.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Calle, F.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Cassan, E.

Caymax, M.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Cerutti, L.

Chang, G. E.

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z–SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. W.

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z–SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B.

Cheng, H. H.

Cho, Y. J.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, S. L.

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z–SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cleary, J. W.

Crozat, P.

D’Costa, V.

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D’Costa, V. R.

V. R. D’Costa, J. Tolle, J. Xie, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Transport properties of doped GeSn alloys,” AIP Conf. Proc.1199, 57–58 (2008).

Demeulemeester, J.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Douhard, B.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Franquet, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Gassenq, A.

Gencarelli, F.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Gibart, P.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hanssen, L.

J. Zeng and L. Hanssen, “Calibration of the spectral radiant power responsivity of windowed pyroelectric radiometers from 785 nm to 14 μm,” Proc. SPIE7082, 70820Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J. M.

Hattasan, N.

He, G.

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband Transitions in SnxGe1-x Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(10), 1937–1940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, J.

Henrichsen, H. H.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heyns, M.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Hu, W.

Huo, Y.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jo, M. H.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamins, T. I.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasper, E.

J. Werner, M. Oehme, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3361–3364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kee Yeo, Y.

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. J.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopp, C.

Kouvetakis, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, J. Tolle, J. Xie, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Transport properties of doped GeSn alloys,” AIP Conf. Proc.1199, 57–58 (2008).

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer hetero-structures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krijn, M.

M. Krijn, “Heterojunction band offsets and effective masses in III-V quaternary alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.6(1), 27–31 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kumara, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Lee, H. S.

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loo, R.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Lu, W.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mathews, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meersschaut, J.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Menendez, J.

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Menéndez, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, J. Tolle, J. Xie, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Transport properties of doped GeSn alloys,” AIP Conf. Proc.1199, 57–58 (2008).

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer hetero-structures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merckling, C.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moussa, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Munoz, E.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

J. Werner, M. Oehme, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3361–3364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Omnes, F.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Pau, J. L.

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, D. H.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Polzer, A.

Richard, O.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J. B.

Roelkens, G.

Roucka, R.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, M. Y.

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, A.

J. Werner, M. Oehme, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3361–3364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, J.

J. Werner, M. Oehme, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3361–3364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

Soref, R. A.

Souriau, L.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, S.

Sun, G.

Temst, K.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Tolle, J.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, J. Tolle, J. Xie, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Transport properties of doped GeSn alloys,” AIP Conf. Proc.1199, 57–58 (2008).

Tournié, E.

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vandervorst, W.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Vantomme, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Vincent, B.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

Vivien, L.

Wang, Q.

Wang, W.

Werner, J.

J. Werner, M. Oehme, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3361–3364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, J. Tolle, J. Xie, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Transport properties of doped GeSn alloys,” AIP Conf. Proc.1199, 57–58 (2008).

Xu, C.

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xue, C.

Xue, H.

Yu, S.-Q.

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, J.

J. Zeng and L. Hanssen, “Calibration of the spectral radiant power responsivity of windowed pyroelectric radiometers from 785 nm to 14 μm,” Proc. SPIE7082, 70820Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Zimmermann, H.

Zuo, Y.

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

V. R. D’Costa, J. Tolle, J. Xie, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Transport properties of doped GeSn alloys,” AIP Conf. Proc.1199, 57–58 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1−ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, C. Xu, R. Roucka, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct-gap photoluminescence with tunable emission wavelength in Ge1−ySny alloys on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(22), 221912 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1−x−ySixSny strained-layer hetero-structures with a direct Ge Bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(10), 102109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

ECS Trans. (1)

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumara, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline Properties and Strain Relaxation Mechanism of CVD Grown GeSn,” ECS Trans. (to be published).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. E. Chang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-Balanced GezSn1−z–SixGeySn1−x−y Multiple-Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Roucka, R. Beeler, J. Mathews, M. Y. Ryu, Y. Kee Yeo, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible detector materials with enhanced 1550 nm responsivity via Sn-doping of Ge/Si(100),” J. Appl. Phys.109(10), 103115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

E. Monroy, F. Calle, J. L. Pau, E. Munoz, F. Omnes, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “AlGaN-based UV photodetectors,” J. Cryst. Growth230(3–4), 537–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menéndez, J. Tolle, and S.-Q. Yu, “Ge1−ySny photoconductor structures at 1.55 m: From advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(6), 1952–1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. J. Kim, H. S. Lee, Y. J. Cho, K. Kang, and M. H. Jo, “Diameter-dependent internal gain in ohmic Ge nanowire photodetectors,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2043–2048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband Transitions in SnxGe1-x Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(10), 1937–1940 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Zeng and L. Hanssen, “Calibration of the spectral radiant power responsivity of windowed pyroelectric radiometers from 785 nm to 14 μm,” Proc. SPIE7082, 70820Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Krijn, “Heterojunction band offsets and effective masses in III-V quaternary alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.6(1), 27–31 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn Chemical Vapor Deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown GeSn p-i-n photodetectors integrated on Si,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3361–3364 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/Ge/

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, “Infrared methods for gas detection,” in Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room temperature modeling of (a) Band parameters of Ge1-xSnx lattice-matched to Ge; (b) Band diagram and carrier presence probability for a Ge0.9Sn0.1/Ge heterostructure (20nm thick quantum well). The quantum well energy levels are illustrated by the dashed lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured (solid line) and simulated (dashed line) XRD rocking curve of the epitaxial stack with a 25nm Ge0.91Sn0.09 strained quantum well on Ge with a 100nm Ge cap layer; The generalized layer stack is shown in the inset; (b) Top view of the processed GeSn photoconductive detector for surface illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

I(V) measurements of processed photoconductive detectors: (a) dark current for sample A without Ge cap layer and sample B with N = 0,1,2 or 3 Ge0.91Sn0.09 quantum wells; (b) under 1.55μm illumination for a Ge photoconductive detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized detector responsivity as function of wavelength for GeSn/Ge photoconductive detectors: (a) with 1, 2 or 3 Ge0.91Sn0.09 quantum wells with a thickness of 20nm; (b) with 3 Ge0.92Sn0.08 quantum wells with a thickness of 13 or 20nm; (c) for a single quantum well with a thickness of 40nm with different Sn content.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Responsivity as a function of wavelength at 5V bias for structures with 0,1,2 or 3 Ge0.91Sn0.09 quantum wells embedded in Ge. The dots are measured using surface illumination with a fiber-coupled source and the solid lines are extracted from FTIR-based measurements.

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