Abstract

We demonstrate rejuvenation in scale-free optical propagation. The phenomenon is caused by the non-ergodic relaxation of the dipolar glass that mediates the photorefractive nonlinearity in compositionally-disordered lithium-enriched potassium-tantalate-niobate (KTN:Li). We implement rejuvenation to halt aging in the dipolar glass and extend the duration of beam diffraction cancellation.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics5, 39–42 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Parravicini, F. Di Mei, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Diffraction cancellation over multiple wavelengths in photorefractive dipolar glasses,” Opt. Express19, 24109–24114 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Subwavelength optical spatial solitons and three-dimensional localization in disordered ferroelectrics: Toward metamaterials of nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. A84, 043809 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Parravicini, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Programming scale-free optics in disordered ferroelectrics,” Opt. Lett.37, 2355–2357 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. DelRe, J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Kovacs and inverse Kovacs effect in the optical scale-free regime” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTu3D.6.
  6. J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, “Equalizing disordered ferroelectrics for diffraction cancellation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 111104 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Folli, E. DelRe, and C. Conti, “Beam instabilities in the scale-free regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033901 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 1863–1866 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, “Characterization of a new photorefractive material: Kl−yLyT1−xNx,” Opt. Lett.17, 713–715 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Bokov, “Recent progress in relaxor ferroelectrics with perovskite structure,” J. Mater. Sci.41, 31–52 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Ben Ishai, C. E. M. De Olivera, Y. Ryabov, Y. Feldman, and A. J. Agranat, “Glass-forming liquid kinetics manifested in a KTN:Cu crystal,” Phys. Rev. B70, 132104 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Sapiens, A. Weissbrod, and A. J. Agranat, “Fast electroholographic switching,” Opt. Lett.34, 353–355 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media” in Topics in Applied Physics vol. 114 (Springer, Berlin, 2009) pp. 547–572.
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    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Jonason, E. Vincent, J. Hamman, J. P. Bouchaud, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and chaos effect in spin glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3243–3246 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Mathieu, M. Hudl, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and rejuvenation in a spin glass,” Eur. Phys. Lett.90, 67003 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Mossa and F. Sciortino, “Crossover (or Kovacs) effect in an aging molecular liquid,” Phys Rev. Lett.92, 045504 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Parravicini, M. Campione, F. Marabelli, M. Moret, and A. Sassella, “Experimental assesment of nonergodicity in tetracene single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B86, 024107 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Gardchareon, R. Mathieu, P. E. Jonsson, and P. Nordblad, “Strong rejuvenation in chiral-glass superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B67, 052505 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, and G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B75, 224203 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 038303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Conti and E. DelRe, “Optical supercavitation in soft matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 118301 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. P. Doussineau and A. Levelut, “Memory against temperature or electric field sweeps in potassium niobiotantalate crystals,” Eur. Phys. J. B26, 13–21 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Crosignani, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. Degasperis, “Self-focusing and self-trapping in unbiased centrosymmetric photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.23, 912–914 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 1664–1667 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J. Parravicini, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Programming scale-free optics in disordered ferroelectrics,” Opt. Lett.37, 2355–2357 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, “Equalizing disordered ferroelectrics for diffraction cancellation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Folli, E. DelRe, and C. Conti, “Beam instabilities in the scale-free regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Parravicini, M. Campione, F. Marabelli, M. Moret, and A. Sassella, “Experimental assesment of nonergodicity in tetracene single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B86, 024107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Parravicini, F. Di Mei, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Diffraction cancellation over multiple wavelengths in photorefractive dipolar glasses,” Opt. Express19, 24109–24114 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Subwavelength optical spatial solitons and three-dimensional localization in disordered ferroelectrics: Toward metamaterials of nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. A84, 043809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. Mathieu, M. Hudl, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and rejuvenation in a spin glass,” Eur. Phys. Lett.90, 67003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti and E. DelRe, “Optical supercavitation in soft matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 118301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 038303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Sapiens, A. Weissbrod, and A. J. Agranat, “Fast electroholographic switching,” Opt. Lett.34, 353–355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, and G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B75, 224203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Bokov, “Recent progress in relaxor ferroelectrics with perovskite structure,” J. Mater. Sci.41, 31–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Ben Ishai, C. E. M. De Olivera, Y. Ryabov, Y. Feldman, and A. J. Agranat, “Glass-forming liquid kinetics manifested in a KTN:Cu crystal,” Phys. Rev. B70, 132104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Mossa and F. Sciortino, “Crossover (or Kovacs) effect in an aging molecular liquid,” Phys Rev. Lett.92, 045504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. A. Samara, “The relaxational properties of compositionally disordered ABO3 perovskites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15, R367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Gardchareon, R. Mathieu, P. E. Jonsson, and P. Nordblad, “Strong rejuvenation in chiral-glass superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B67, 052505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Doussineau and A. Levelut, “Memory against temperature or electric field sweeps in potassium niobiotantalate crystals,” Eur. Phys. J. B26, 13–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. P. Bouchaud, P. Doussineau, T. de Lacerda-Arôso, and A. Levelut, “Frequency dependence of aging, rejuvenation and memory in a disordered ferroelectric,” Eur. Phys. J. B21, 335–340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 1664–1667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Jonason, E. Vincent, J. Hamman, J. P. Bouchaud, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and chaos effect in spin glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3243–3246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. Degasperis, “Self-focusing and self-trapping in unbiased centrosymmetric photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.23, 912–914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

Agranat, A. J.

J. Parravicini, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Programming scale-free optics in disordered ferroelectrics,” Opt. Lett.37, 2355–2357 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, “Equalizing disordered ferroelectrics for diffraction cancellation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Subwavelength optical spatial solitons and three-dimensional localization in disordered ferroelectrics: Toward metamaterials of nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. A84, 043809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Parravicini, F. Di Mei, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Diffraction cancellation over multiple wavelengths in photorefractive dipolar glasses,” Opt. Express19, 24109–24114 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sapiens, A. Weissbrod, and A. J. Agranat, “Fast electroholographic switching,” Opt. Lett.34, 353–355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ben Ishai, C. E. M. De Olivera, Y. Ryabov, Y. Feldman, and A. J. Agranat, “Glass-forming liquid kinetics manifested in a KTN:Cu crystal,” Phys. Rev. B70, 132104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 1664–1667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, and A. Yariv, “Characterization of a new photorefractive material: Kl−yLyT1−xNx,” Opt. Lett.17, 713–715 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DelRe, J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Kovacs and inverse Kovacs effect in the optical scale-free regime” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTu3D.6.

Agrawal, G. P.

Y. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons (Academic Press, New York, 2003).

Aitchison, J. S.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedanta, S.

V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben Ishai, P.

P. Ben Ishai, C. E. M. De Olivera, Y. Ryabov, Y. Feldman, and A. J. Agranat, “Glass-forming liquid kinetics manifested in a KTN:Cu crystal,” Phys. Rev. B70, 132104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bokov, A.

A. Bokov, “Recent progress in relaxor ferroelectrics with perovskite structure,” J. Mater. Sci.41, 31–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, P.

V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchaud, J. P.

J. P. Bouchaud, P. Doussineau, T. de Lacerda-Arôso, and A. Levelut, “Frequency dependence of aging, rejuvenation and memory in a disordered ferroelectric,” Eur. Phys. J. B21, 335–340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Jonason, E. Vincent, J. Hamman, J. P. Bouchaud, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and chaos effect in spin glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3243–3246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campione, M.

G. Parravicini, M. Campione, F. Marabelli, M. Moret, and A. Sassella, “Experimental assesment of nonergodicity in tetracene single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B86, 024107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cardoso, S.

S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

V. Folli, E. DelRe, and C. Conti, “Beam instabilities in the scale-free regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, “Equalizing disordered ferroelectrics for diffraction cancellation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Parravicini, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Programming scale-free optics in disordered ferroelectrics,” Opt. Lett.37, 2355–2357 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Subwavelength optical spatial solitons and three-dimensional localization in disordered ferroelectrics: Toward metamaterials of nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. A84, 043809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Parravicini, F. Di Mei, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Diffraction cancellation over multiple wavelengths in photorefractive dipolar glasses,” Opt. Express19, 24109–24114 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti and E. DelRe, “Optical supercavitation in soft matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 118301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 038303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, and G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B75, 224203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Kovacs and inverse Kovacs effect in the optical scale-free regime” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTu3D.6.

Crosignani, B.

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 1664–1667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. Degasperis, “Self-focusing and self-trapping in unbiased centrosymmetric photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.23, 912–914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Lacerda-Arôso, T.

J. P. Bouchaud, P. Doussineau, T. de Lacerda-Arôso, and A. Levelut, “Frequency dependence of aging, rejuvenation and memory in a disordered ferroelectric,” Eur. Phys. J. B21, 335–340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Olivera, C. E. M.

P. Ben Ishai, C. E. M. De Olivera, Y. Ryabov, Y. Feldman, and A. J. Agranat, “Glass-forming liquid kinetics manifested in a KTN:Cu crystal,” Phys. Rev. B70, 132104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degasperis, A.

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 1664–1667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. Degasperis, “Self-focusing and self-trapping in unbiased centrosymmetric photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.23, 912–914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, “Equalizing disordered ferroelectrics for diffraction cancellation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Folli, E. DelRe, and C. Conti, “Beam instabilities in the scale-free regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Parravicini, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Programming scale-free optics in disordered ferroelectrics,” Opt. Lett.37, 2355–2357 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Subwavelength optical spatial solitons and three-dimensional localization in disordered ferroelectrics: Toward metamaterials of nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. A84, 043809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Parravicini, F. Di Mei, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Diffraction cancellation over multiple wavelengths in photorefractive dipolar glasses,” Opt. Express19, 24109–24114 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti and E. DelRe, “Optical supercavitation in soft matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 118301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 1664–1667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. Degasperis, “Self-focusing and self-trapping in unbiased centrosymmetric photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.23, 912–914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Kovacs and inverse Kovacs effect in the optical scale-free regime” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTu3D.6.

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media” in Topics in Applied Physics vol. 114 (Springer, Berlin, 2009) pp. 547–572.
[CrossRef]

Di Mei, F.

Di Porto, P.

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 1664–1667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. Degasperis, “Self-focusing and self-trapping in unbiased centrosymmetric photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.23, 912–914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Donth, E.

E. Donth, The Glass Transition (Springer-Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg, 2001).

Doussineau, P.

P. Doussineau and A. Levelut, “Memory against temperature or electric field sweeps in potassium niobiotantalate crystals,” Eur. Phys. J. B26, 13–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Bouchaud, P. Doussineau, T. de Lacerda-Arôso, and A. Levelut, “Frequency dependence of aging, rejuvenation and memory in a disordered ferroelectric,” Eur. Phys. J. B21, 335–340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H. S.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, Y.

P. Ben Ishai, C. E. M. De Olivera, Y. Ryabov, Y. Feldman, and A. J. Agranat, “Glass-forming liquid kinetics manifested in a KTN:Cu crystal,” Phys. Rev. B70, 132104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Firstenberg, O.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Folli, V.

V. Folli, E. DelRe, and C. Conti, “Beam instabilities in the scale-free regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freitas, P. P.

S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gardchareon, A.

A. Gardchareon, R. Mathieu, P. E. Jonsson, and P. Nordblad, “Strong rejuvenation in chiral-glass superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B67, 052505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gofraniha, N.

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 038303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, and G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B75, 224203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamman, J.

K. Jonason, E. Vincent, J. Hamman, J. P. Bouchaud, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and chaos effect in spin glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3243–3246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hofmeister, R.

Hudl, M.

R. Mathieu, M. Hudl, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and rejuvenation in a spin glass,” Eur. Phys. Lett.90, 67003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999).

Jonason, K.

K. Jonason, E. Vincent, J. Hamman, J. P. Bouchaud, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and chaos effect in spin glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3243–3246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jonsson, P. E.

A. Gardchareon, R. Mathieu, P. E. Jonsson, and P. Nordblad, “Strong rejuvenation in chiral-glass superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B67, 052505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Y. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons (Academic Press, New York, 2003).

Kleemann, W.

V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leuzzi, L.

L. Leuzzi and T.M. Nieuwenhuizen, Thermodynamics of the Glassy State (Taylor & Francis, New York & London, 2008).

Levelut, A.

P. Doussineau and A. Levelut, “Memory against temperature or electric field sweeps in potassium niobiotantalate crystals,” Eur. Phys. J. B26, 13–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Bouchaud, P. Doussineau, T. de Lacerda-Arôso, and A. Levelut, “Frequency dependence of aging, rejuvenation and memory in a disordered ferroelectric,” Eur. Phys. J. B21, 335–340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

London, P.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marabelli, F.

G. Parravicini, M. Campione, F. Marabelli, M. Moret, and A. Sassella, “Experimental assesment of nonergodicity in tetracene single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B86, 024107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, R.

R. Mathieu, M. Hudl, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and rejuvenation in a spin glass,” Eur. Phys. Lett.90, 67003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gardchareon, R. Mathieu, P. E. Jonsson, and P. Nordblad, “Strong rejuvenation in chiral-glass superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B67, 052505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moret, M.

G. Parravicini, M. Campione, F. Marabelli, M. Moret, and A. Sassella, “Experimental assesment of nonergodicity in tetracene single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B86, 024107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mossa, S.

S. Mossa and F. Sciortino, “Crossover (or Kovacs) effect in an aging molecular liquid,” Phys Rev. Lett.92, 045504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

L. Leuzzi and T.M. Nieuwenhuizen, Thermodynamics of the Glassy State (Taylor & Francis, New York & London, 2008).

Nordblad, P.

R. Mathieu, M. Hudl, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and rejuvenation in a spin glass,” Eur. Phys. Lett.90, 67003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Gardchareon, R. Mathieu, P. E. Jonsson, and P. Nordblad, “Strong rejuvenation in chiral-glass superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B67, 052505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Jonason, E. Vincent, J. Hamman, J. P. Bouchaud, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and chaos effect in spin glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3243–3246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parravicini, G.

G. Parravicini, M. Campione, F. Marabelli, M. Moret, and A. Sassella, “Experimental assesment of nonergodicity in tetracene single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B86, 024107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parravicini, J.

J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, “Equalizing disordered ferroelectrics for diffraction cancellation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Parravicini, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Programming scale-free optics in disordered ferroelectrics,” Opt. Lett.37, 2355–2357 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Parravicini, F. Di Mei, C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Diffraction cancellation over multiple wavelengths in photorefractive dipolar glasses,” Opt. Express19, 24109–24114 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DelRe, J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Kovacs and inverse Kovacs effect in the optical scale-free regime” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTu3D.6.

Petracic, O.

S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ron, A.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruocco, G.

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 038303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, and G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B75, 224203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ryabov, Y.

P. Ben Ishai, C. E. M. De Olivera, Y. Ryabov, Y. Feldman, and A. J. Agranat, “Glass-forming liquid kinetics manifested in a KTN:Cu crystal,” Phys. Rev. B70, 132104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sahoo, S.

S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Samara, G. A.

G. A. Samara, “The relaxational properties of compositionally disordered ABO3 perovskites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15, R367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sapiens, N.

Sassella, A.

G. Parravicini, M. Campione, F. Marabelli, M. Moret, and A. Sassella, “Experimental assesment of nonergodicity in tetracene single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B86, 024107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sciortino, F.

S. Mossa and F. Sciortino, “Crossover (or Kovacs) effect in an aging molecular liquid,” Phys Rev. Lett.92, 045504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media” in Topics in Applied Physics vol. 114 (Springer, Berlin, 2009) pp. 547–572.
[CrossRef]

Shuker, M.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shvartsman, V. V.

V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinozzi, E.

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trach, A.

V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilarinho, P. M.

V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent, E.

K. Jonason, E. Vincent, J. Hamman, J. P. Bouchaud, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and chaos effect in spin glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3243–3246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weissbrod, A.

Yariv, A.

Zamponi, F.

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 038303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, C. Conti, and E. DelRe, “Equalizing disordered ferroelectrics for diffraction cancellation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B

J. P. Bouchaud, P. Doussineau, T. de Lacerda-Arôso, and A. Levelut, “Frequency dependence of aging, rejuvenation and memory in a disordered ferroelectric,” Eur. Phys. J. B21, 335–340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Doussineau and A. Levelut, “Memory against temperature or electric field sweeps in potassium niobiotantalate crystals,” Eur. Phys. J. B26, 13–21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. Lett.

R. Mathieu, M. Hudl, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and rejuvenation in a spin glass,” Eur. Phys. Lett.90, 67003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

A. Bokov, “Recent progress in relaxor ferroelectrics with perovskite structure,” J. Mater. Sci.41, 31–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

G. A. Samara, “The relaxational properties of compositionally disordered ABO3 perovskites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter15, R367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics5, 39–42 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nat. Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys Rev. Lett.

S. Mossa and F. Sciortino, “Crossover (or Kovacs) effect in an aging molecular liquid,” Phys Rev. Lett.92, 045504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

C. Conti, A. J. Agranat, and E. DelRe, “Subwavelength optical spatial solitons and three-dimensional localization in disordered ferroelectrics: Toward metamaterials of nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. A84, 043809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. Ben Ishai, C. E. M. De Olivera, Y. Ryabov, Y. Feldman, and A. J. Agranat, “Glass-forming liquid kinetics manifested in a KTN:Cu crystal,” Phys. Rev. B70, 132104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Parravicini, M. Campione, F. Marabelli, M. Moret, and A. Sassella, “Experimental assesment of nonergodicity in tetracene single crystals,” Phys. Rev. B86, 024107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gardchareon, R. Mathieu, P. E. Jonsson, and P. Nordblad, “Strong rejuvenation in chiral-glass superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B67, 052505 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Sahoo, O. Petracic, W. Kleemann, P. Nordblad, S. Cardoso, and P. P. Freitas “Aging and memory in a superspin glass,” Phys. Rev. B67, 214422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, and G. Ruocco, “Aging of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in doped colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. B75, 224203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Gofraniha, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and F. Zamponi, “Time-dependent nonlinear optical susceptibility of an out-of-equilibrium soft material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 038303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti and E. DelRe, “Optical supercavitation in soft matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 118301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 1664–1667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Shvartsman, S. Bedanta, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, A. Trach, and P. M. Vilarinho, “(Sr, Mn)TiO(3): A magnetoelectric multiglass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 165704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jonason, E. Vincent, J. Hamman, J. P. Bouchaud, and P. Nordblad, “Memory and chaos effect in spin glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3243–3246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 1863–1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Folli, E. DelRe, and C. Conti, “Beam instabilities in the scale-free regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999).

Y. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons (Academic Press, New York, 2003).

E. DelRe, J. Parravicini, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Kovacs and inverse Kovacs effect in the optical scale-free regime” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTu3D.6.

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media” in Topics in Applied Physics vol. 114 (Springer, Berlin, 2009) pp. 547–572.
[CrossRef]

E. Donth, The Glass Transition (Springer-Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg, 2001).

L. Leuzzi and T.M. Nieuwenhuizen, Thermodynamics of the Glassy State (Taylor & Francis, New York & London, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic temperature variation protocol for rejuvenation experiments (as described e.g. in [21]): the sample is cooled at a constant rate from Tmax to an intermediate temperature Tpl below the (dynamic) glass transition temperature Td, where cooling is interrupted and an isothermal evolution takes place, for a given time interval (plateau); cooling then resumes down to Tmin and is immediately followed by a steady heating at an opposite rate from Tmin to Tmax.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Identification of the region where dielectric response is dominated by PNRs. KTN:Li static dielectric constant εr for slow cooling (red curve) and slow heating (blue curve) as a function of temperature (TC = 14.5 °C). The regions of paraelectric (PE) and ferroelectric (FE) behavior are unable to support scale-free propagation. The glassy region where PNRs can support scale-free propagation is indicated with the shading, where marked thermal hysteresis is detected. (b) 1/εr vs. (TTC) plot identifying Td ≃ 18.2°C as the dynamic glass transition temperature when the mean-field Curie-Weiss law (dotted line) breaks down [14, 20].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical rejuvenation. (a) Standard thermal protocol T = T(t) to activate scale-free propagation with the corresponding trend of diffraction cancellation S as a function of time; (b) rejuvenation thermal protocol and stabilization of S to its maximum value for a ΔT ≃ 3.5°C pulse activated when S ≃ 0.85 ; (c) rejuvenation for a ΔT ≃ 2.5°C pulse activated when S ≃ 0.86; and (d) absence of rejuvenation for a ΔT ≃ 3.5°C activated when S ≃ 0.73.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity distribution at the output facet of the crystal for standard (a) and rejuvenating (b) thermal protocols, as in respectively Figs. 3(a)–(b) and 3(e)–(f).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 i k A z + 2 A ( L λ ) 2 ( I ) 2 4 I 2 A = 0
L = 4 π n 0 2 ε 0 g χ PNR ( K B T / q ) .
S = Δ r d Δ r Δ r d Δ r in

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