Abstract

At routing nodes in future photonic networks, pico-second switching will be a key function. We propose an all-optical switch consisting of two-stage Mach-Zehnder interferometers, whose arms contain graphene saturable absorption films. Optical amplitudes along the interferometers are controlled to perform switching between two output ports instead of phase control used in conventional switches. Since only absorption is used for realizing complete switching, insertion loss of 10.2 dB is accompanied in switching. Picosecond response can be expected because of the fast response of saturable absorption of graphene. The switching characteristics are theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM).

© 2012 OSA

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  1. X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.23(4), 1631–1636 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 172–180 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Yamashita,“A tutorial on nonlinear photonics applications of carbon nanotube and graphene” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5543–5551 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.QE-11(1), 32–39 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Yamashita,“A tutorial on nonlinear photonics applications of carbon nanotube and graphene” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 172–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photon.4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5543–5551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nature Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.23(4), 1631–1636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, T. Anada, and P. C. Kendall,“Bi-oblique propagation analysis of symmetric and asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.15(4), 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1975 (1)

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.QE-11(1), 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Akahori, Y.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, R.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anada, T.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, T. Anada, and P. C. Kendall,“Bi-oblique propagation analysis of symmetric and asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.15(4), 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ando, S.

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, T. M.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, T. Anada, and P. C. Kendall,“Bi-oblique propagation analysis of symmetric and asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.15(4), 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photon.4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.QE-11(1), 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Enokihara, A.

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photon.4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nature Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goto, N.

H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 172–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5543–5551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.23(4), 1631–1636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photon.4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hiura, H.

H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5543–5551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huijskens, F. M.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, N.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

Kato, K.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, H.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, P. C.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, T. Anada, and P. C. Kendall,“Bi-oblique propagation analysis of symmetric and asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.15(4), 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimiya, K.

H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 172–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kishikawa, H.

H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 172–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.23(4), 1631–1636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurosaki, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuwatsuka, H.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milton, A. F.

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.QE-11(1), 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, A. K.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, M.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, J.

K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nature Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, Y.

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polavarapu, L.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rana, F.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, T.

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, T. Anada, and P. C. Kendall,“Bi-oblique propagation analysis of symmetric and asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.15(4), 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shivaraman, S.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, Y.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, M. G.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suda, S.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sueta, T.

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photon.4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suto, K.

K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tohmori, Y.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita,“A tutorial on nonlinear photonics applications of carbon nanotube and graphene” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yanagisawa, M.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanagiya, S.

H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 172–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5543–5551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano, 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38–39), (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.QE-11(1), 32–39 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett (1)

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.6(5), 626–628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol (4)

H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.23(4), 1631–1636 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 172–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita,“A tutorial on nonlinear photonics applications of carbon nanotube and graphene” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, T. Anada, and P. C. Kendall,“Bi-oblique propagation analysis of symmetric and asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.15(4), 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5543–5551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.18(11), 1541–1547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nature Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon. (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photon.4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Commun (1)

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical switch operated by controlling the gain of Raman amplifiers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeling of a sheet of monolayer graphene; (a) signal and control light perpendicularly incident to graphene, and (b) model of cascade connection of attenuator and amplifier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical transmittance as a function of optical incident intensity for saturable absorption in monolayer graphene.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeling of two sheets of monolayer graphene; (a) signal and control light perpendicularly incident to graphene, and (b) model of cascade connection of attenuators and amplifiers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Switch architecture consisting of two-stage interferometers having two-stage monolayer graphene in both arms in the first interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical intensities along the switch obtained by FD-BPM simulation: (a) switched to output port Bout by inserting control light to lower arm (αA = 1, α B = 1 + 2) and (b) switched to output port Aout by inserting control light to upper arm ( α A = 1 + 2, αB = 1).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of optical output intensities between theoretical analysis and smula-tion.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( E out lower E out upper ) = 1 2 ( 1 1 1 1 ) ( E in lower E in upper ) ,
( A out B out ) = ( 1 2 ) 3 ( 1 1 1 1 ) ( 1 0 0 β fix ) ( 1 1 1 1 ) × ( α B 0 0 α A ) ( 1 1 1 1 ) ( A in B in ) = 1 2 2 ( a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 ) ( A in B in ) ,
{ a 11 = α A α B β fix ( α A + α B ) a 12 = α A + α B + β fix ( α A + α B ) a 21 = ( α A α B ) β fix ( α A + α B ) a 22 = ( α A + α B ) + β fix ( α A + α B ) .
( A out B out ) = E in 2 2 ( a 11 a 21 ) .
( A out B out ) = E in ( 1 0 ) .
( A out B out ) = E in ( 0 1 ) .
( A m B m ) = 1 2 ( 1 1 1 1 ) ( α B 0 0 α A ) ( 1 1 1 1 ) ( A in B in ) = 1 2 ( α B α A α B + α A α B α A α B + α A ) ( A in B in ) .
( A m B m ) = E in 2 ( α B α A α B α A ) .
( A m B m ) = E in 2 ( 2 2 + 2 ) .
( A m B m ) = E in 2 ( 2 2 + 2 ) .
( A m β fix B m ) = E in 2 ( 1 1 ) .
( A m β fix B m ) = E in 2 ( 1 1 ) .
( A out B out ) = β fix 0 E in 2 2 ( a 11 a 21 ) .
( A out B out ) = β fix 0 E in ( 1 0 ) .
( A out B out ) = β fix 0 E in ( 0 1 ) .

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