Abstract

We investigate the use of “photonic lanterns” as adiabatic mode converters for space-division multiplexing (SDM) systems to interface multiple single-mode fibers to a multi-mode fiber. In a SDM system, minimizing the coupling loss and mode-dependent loss best utilizes all spatial modes of the fiber which increases the capacity, the transmission distance, and minimizes the outage probability. We use modal analysis, the beam propagation method, and a transfer matrix technique to analyze the lanterns throughput along with its mode dependent loss and show that unitary coupling between single-mode fibers and a multi-mode fiber is only possible by optimizing the arrangements of the cores. Results include simulations for three, 12, 15, and 51 core lanterns to couple to six, 24, 30, and 102 spatial and polarization modes, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Chraplyvy, “Plenary paper: The coming capacity crunch,” in “35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC ’09,” (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.
  2. P. J. Winzer and G. J. Foschini, “MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems,” Opt. Express19, 16680–16696 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essi-ambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. E. Freund, C. A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, and C. Caspar, “High-Speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 569–586 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Precise modal excitation in multimode fibre for control of modal dispersion and mode-group division multiplexing,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. We.10.P1.62.
  6. K. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol.29, 3119–3128 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.
  8. S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express19, 16697–16707 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Coherent Multimode-Fiber MIMO transmission with spatial constellation modulation,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. Tu.5.B.3.
  10. C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.A.3,” (2011).
  11. N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).
  12. S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express18, 8430–8439 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express19, 5698–5705 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express17, 1880–1884 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Lagsgaard, “Multimode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port photonic lantern,” Opt. Express18, 4673–4678 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Dez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, ““Photonic lantern” spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Express20, 13996–14008 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. K. Fontaine, R. R. Ryf, S. G. Leon-Saval, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Evaluation of photonic lanterns for lossless mode-multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2012, paper Th.2.D.6,” (2012).
  18. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2005).
  19. R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” in “IEEE Summer Topicals 2012, paper TuC3.2,” (2012).
  20. H. Bülow, “Optical-mode demultiplexing by optical MIMO filtering of spatial samples,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 1045–1047 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20, 17029–17043 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Stable coherent MIMO transport over few mode fiber enabled by an adiabatic mode splitter,” in “ECOC 2010, paper P4.4,”.

2012

2011

2010

2009

Al-Hashimi, H.

H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Coherent Multimode-Fiber MIMO transmission with spatial constellation modulation,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. Tu.5.B.3.

H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Stable coherent MIMO transport over few mode fiber enabled by an adiabatic mode splitter,” in “ECOC 2010, paper P4.4,”.

Argyros, A.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bolle, C.

Bolle, C. A.

Buhl, L.

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.A.3,” (2011).

Buhl, L. L.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

Bülow, H.

H. Bülow, “Optical-mode demultiplexing by optical MIMO filtering of spatial samples,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 1045–1047 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Stable coherent MIMO transport over few mode fiber enabled by an adiabatic mode splitter,” in “ECOC 2010, paper P4.4,”.

H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Coherent Multimode-Fiber MIMO transmission with spatial constellation modulation,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. Tu.5.B.3.

Bunge, C. A.

Burrows, E. C.

Carpenter, J.

J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Precise modal excitation in multimode fibre for control of modal dispersion and mode-group division multiplexing,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. We.10.P1.62.

Caspar, C.

Chraplyvy, A.

A. Chraplyvy, “Plenary paper: The coming capacity crunch,” in “35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC ’09,” (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.

Cruz, J. L.

Delbue, R.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Dez, A.

Doerr, C. R.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.A.3,” (2011).

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express19, 16697–16707 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” in “IEEE Summer Topicals 2012, paper TuC3.2,” (2012).

Essi-ambre, R.-J.

Fontaine, N. K.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” in “IEEE Summer Topicals 2012, paper TuC3.2,” (2012).

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.A.3,” (2011).

N. K. Fontaine, R. R. Ryf, S. G. Leon-Saval, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Evaluation of photonic lanterns for lossless mode-multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2012, paper Th.2.D.6,” (2012).

Foschini, G. J.

Freund, R. E.

Fuerbach, A.

Gnauck, A.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gross, S.

Haynes, R.

Hirano, M.

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.A.3,” (2011).

Ho, K.

Ireland, M.

Jiang, X.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Jovanovic, N.

Kahn, J. M.

Kar, A. K.

Kern, P.

Lagsgaard, J.

Lawrence, J. S.

Ledentsov, N. N.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essi-ambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express19, 16697–16707 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Maack, M. D.

Mangan, B. J.

McCurdy, A.

McCurdy, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essi-ambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Mestre, M. A.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

Miese, C.

Molin, D.

Mumtaz, S.

Murphy, D. F.

Noordegraaf, D.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2005).

Peckham, D.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Peckham, D. W.

Pupalaikis, P.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Randel, S.

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essi-ambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol.30, 521–531 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express19, 16697–16707 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” in “IEEE Summer Topicals 2012, paper TuC3.2,” (2012).

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Ryf, R. R.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

N. K. Fontaine, R. R. Ryf, S. G. Leon-Saval, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Evaluation of photonic lanterns for lossless mode-multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2012, paper Th.2.D.6,” (2012).

Sasaki, T.

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.A.3,” (2011).

Schmauss, B.

H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Coherent Multimode-Fiber MIMO transmission with spatial constellation modulation,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. Tu.5.B.3.

H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Stable coherent MIMO transport over few mode fiber enabled by an adiabatic mode splitter,” in “ECOC 2010, paper P4.4,”.

Schmidt, C.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Sierra, A.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Spaleniak, I.

Sun, Y.

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Sureka, A.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

Thomson, R. R.

Wilkinson, T. D.

J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Precise modal excitation in multimode fibre for control of modal dispersion and mode-group division multiplexing,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. We.10.P1.62.

Winzer, P.

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.A.3,” (2011).

Winzer, P. J.

Withford, M. J.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Bülow, “Optical-mode demultiplexing by optical MIMO filtering of spatial samples,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 1045–1047 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Dez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, ““Photonic lantern” spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Express20, 13996–14008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20, 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express18, 8430–8439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express19, 5698–5705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Winzer and G. J. Foschini, “MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems,” Opt. Express19, 16680–16696 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express19, 16697–16707 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express17, 1880–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Lagsgaard, “Multimode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port photonic lantern,” Opt. Express18, 4673–4678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Stable coherent MIMO transport over few mode fiber enabled by an adiabatic mode splitter,” in “ECOC 2010, paper P4.4,”.

A. Chraplyvy, “Plenary paper: The coming capacity crunch,” in “35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC ’09,” (IEEE, 2009), p. 1.

J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Precise modal excitation in multimode fibre for control of modal dispersion and mode-group division multiplexing,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. We.10.P1.62.

H. Bülow, H. Al-Hashimi, and B. Schmauss, “Coherent Multimode-Fiber MIMO transmission with spatial constellation modulation,” in “European Conference on Communications,” (Optical Society of America, 2011), OSA Technical Digest (CD), p. Tu.5.B.3.

C. R. Doerr, N. K. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2011, paper Th.13.A.3,” (2011).

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Mestre, R. R. Ryf, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing and all-optical MIMO demultiplexing using a photonic integrated circuit,” in “OFC 2012, paper PDP5B.1,” (2012).

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, D. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Low-Loss mode coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode fiber,” in “OFC,” (2012), OSA Technical Digest, p. PDP5B.5.

N. K. Fontaine, R. R. Ryf, S. G. Leon-Saval, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Evaluation of photonic lanterns for lossless mode-multiplexing,” in “ECOC 2012, paper Th.2.D.6,” (2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Coherent SDM with electronic MIMO processing (N<=M<=K). (b) A vanishing core photonic lantern to function as the spatial multiplexer and spatial demultiplexer. (c) Approximate geometry of the array pattern during the taper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) 15 lowest order step index fiber spatial modes. (b) Coupled waveguide arrays whose supermodes closely match the fiber modes. (c) 15 lowest order modes of near optimal 15 core arrangement. (d) 15 lowest order modes of an incorrect 15 core arrangement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of two three-core lanterns using modal analysis. (a) Triangle array which supports the same modes as the fiber, (b) linear array which supports the LP01, LP11a, and a TEM20 mode. Red lines indicate the three guided MMF modes, blue lines indicate higher-order cladding modes which are not guided in the MMF, and green lines indicate modes that are guided in the array but not in the MMF. NA1 = NA2 = 0.12.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BPM simulations from for the three core lantern with 0.012 rad taper angle (a) the input supermodes and the (b) input core modes to the outputs. (c,d) Intensity coupling matrix from the inputs to the MMF modes. Simulation length is 10 mm, core diameter to outer diameter ratio is 1/8, the taper begins with a 70 μm outer diameter and ends with a 14 μm outer diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BPM simulations for the three core lantern with a 0.12 rad taper angle. (a) the input supermodes to the outputs. (b) Intensity coupling matrix from the inputs to the MMF modes. Simulation length is 1 mm, core diameter to outer diameter ratio is 1/8, the taper begins with a 70 μm outer diameter and ends with a 14 μm outer diameter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of two 12 core lanterns. (a) Propagation constants vs. core separation. BPM simulation showing supermode radiating out of lantern B. (c) CPL and MDL calculated using BPM assuming lantern is cut at different lengths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of two 51 core lanterns. Propagation constants vs. cladding diameter. Lantern C has correct core arrangements and cladding and supermodes do not mix. Lantern D has an incorrect core arrangement and the one supermode mixes with one cladding mode.

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