Abstract

We report generation of femtosecond optical pulses tunable in the 1.6–2.5 μm range using GeO2-doped core silica-cladding fibers. Optical solitons with a duration of 80–160 fs have been measured by the FROG technique in the 2–2.3 μm range. To the best of our knowledge, these are the longest wavelength temporally characterized solitons generated in silica-based fibers. We have also demonstrated more than octave-spanning femtosecond supercontinuum generation in the 1.0–2.6 μm range.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S.D. Agger and J.H. Povlsen, “Emission and absorption cross section of thulium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express14, 50–57 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I.T. Sorokina, Mid-infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (Springer, 2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C.R. Phillips, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, A.C. Lin, C. Langrock, M. Snure, D. Bliss, M. Zhu, I. Hartl, J.S. Harris, M. E. Fermann, and M.M. Fejer, “Widely tunable midinfrared difference frequency generation in orientation-patterned GaAs pumped with a femtosecond Tm-fiber system,” Opt. Lett.37, 2928–2930 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A.V. Andrianov, E.A. Anashkina, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of hybrid Er-doped laser/Yb-doped amplifier system for high power ultrashort pulse generation,” Opt. Lett.35, 3805–3807 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Kieu, R.J. Jones, and N. Peyghambarian, “High power femtosecond source near 1 micron based on an all-fiber Er-doped mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express18, 21350–21355 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Kumkar, G. Krauss, M. Wunram, D. Fehrenbacher, U. Demirbas, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond coherent seeding of a broadband Tm:fiber amplifier by an Er:fiber system,” Opt. Lett.37, 554–556 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M.N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J.P. Gordon, and D.S. Chemla, “Femtosecond distributed soliton spectrum in fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B6, 1149–1158 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.7, 518–524 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Attosecond relative timing jitter and 13 fs tunable pulses from a two-branch femtosecond Er:fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32, 3504–3506 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A.V. Andrianov, A.V. Kim, S.V. Muraviov, and A.A. Sysoliatin, “Generation of optical soliton pulses smoothly tunable in a wide frequency range in silica fibers with variable dispersion,” JETP Letters85, 364–368 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M.E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and D.J. Harter, “Modular, high energy, widely-tunable ultrafast fiber source,” US patent US6885683.
  12. G.S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M.S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.34, 2015–2017 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Granzow, S.P. Stark, M.A. Schmidt, A.S. Tverjanovich, L. WondraczekL, and P.S. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express19, 21003–21010 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys.21, 1115–1121 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).
  16. C.L. Hagen, J.W. Walewski, and S.T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber With an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.18, 91–96 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E.M. Dianov and V.M. Mashinsky, “Germania-based core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.23, 3500–3508 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V.A. Kamynin, A.S. Kurkov, and V.M. Mashinsky, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.7 μm in the germanate-glass-core and silica-glass-cladding fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 219–222 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Bencheikh, S. Richard, G. Mélin, G. Krabshuis, F. Gooijer, and J.A. Levenson, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation in highly germanium-doped fiber,” Opt. Lett.37, 289–291 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K.W. DeLong, D.N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32, 1253–1264 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A.V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901–203904 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).
  23. Yu. Yatsenko and A. Mavritsky, “D-scan measurement of nonlinear refractive index in fibers heavily doped with GeO2,” Opt. Lett.32, 3257–3259 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. Rottwitt and J.H. Povlsen, “Analyzing the fundamental properties of Raman amplification in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.23, 3597–3605, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A.W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).
  26. C. Agger, S.T. Sørensen, C.L. Thomsen, S.R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36, 2596–2598 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. E.A. Anashkina, A.V. Andrianov, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of erbium-doped laser system for tunable two-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Express19, 20141–20150 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Laegsgaard, “Mode profile dispersion in the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Opt. Express15, 16110–16123 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

2010

2009

2007

2006

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

C.L. Hagen, J.W. Walewski, and S.T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber With an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.18, 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2001

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.7, 518–524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A.V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901–203904 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

K.W. DeLong, D.N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

Adler, F.

Agger, C.

Agger, S.D.

Agrawal, G.P.

G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Anashkina, E.A.

Andrianov, A.V.

Bang, O.

Bar-Joseph, I.

Bencheikh, K.

Bliss, D.

Brida, D.

Chaudhari, C.

Chemla, D.S.

DeLong, K.W.

K.W. DeLong, D.N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Demirbas, U.

Dianov, E.M.

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I.T. Sorokina, Mid-infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (Springer, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Fehrenbacher, D.

Fejer, M.M.

Fermann, M. E.

Fermann, M.E.

M.E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and D.J. Harter, “Modular, high energy, widely-tunable ultrafast fiber source,” US patent US6885683.

Fittinghoff, D.N.

K.W. DeLong, D.N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M.J.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

Galvanauskas, A.

M.E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and D.J. Harter, “Modular, high energy, widely-tunable ultrafast fiber source,” US patent US6885683.

Gooijer, F.

Gordon, J.P.

Goto, T.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.7, 518–524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Granzow, N.

Hagen, C.L.

C.L. Hagen, J.W. Walewski, and S.T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber With an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.18, 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.S.

Harter, D.J.

M.E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and D.J. Harter, “Modular, high energy, widely-tunable ultrafast fiber source,” US patent US6885683.

Hartl, I.

Herrmann, J.

A.V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901–203904 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Husakou, A.V.

A.V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901–203904 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Islam, M.N.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

M.N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J.P. Gordon, and D.S. Chemla, “Femtosecond distributed soliton spectrum in fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B6, 1149–1158 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Jones, R.J.

Kamynin, V.A.

V.A. Kamynin, A.S. Kurkov, and V.M. Mashinsky, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.7 μm in the germanate-glass-core and silica-glass-cladding fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 219–222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.R.

Kieu, K.

Kim, A.V.

Kito, C.

Krabshuis, G.

Krauss, G.

Kulkarni, O.P.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

Kumar, M.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

Kumkar, S.

Kurkov, A.S.

V.A. Kamynin, A.S. Kurkov, and V.M. Mashinsky, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.7 μm in the germanate-glass-core and silica-glass-cladding fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 219–222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laegsgaard, J.

Langrock, C.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Levenson, J.A.

Liao, M.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys.21, 1115–1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M.S.

Lin, A.C.

Love, J.

A.W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

Mashinsky, V.M.

V.A. Kamynin, A.S. Kurkov, and V.M. Mashinsky, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.7 μm in the germanate-glass-core and silica-glass-cladding fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 219–222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E.M. Dianov and V.M. Mashinsky, “Germania-based core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.23, 3500–3508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mavritsky, A.

Maze, G.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

Mélin, G.

Mohr, C.

Mori, A.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys.21, 1115–1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muraviov, S.V.

Nishizawa, N.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.7, 518–524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys.21, 1115–1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M.S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.34, 2015–2017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

Phillips, C.R.

Poulain, M.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

Povlsen, J.H.

Qin, G.S.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys.21, 1115–1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M.S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.34, 2015–2017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard, S.

Rottwitt, K.

Russell, P.S.

Sanders, S.T.

C.L. Hagen, J.W. Walewski, and S.T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber With an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.18, 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.A.

Sell, A.

Snure, M.

Snyder, A.W.

A.W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

Sørensen, S.T.

Sorokina, I.T.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I.T. Sorokina, Mid-infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (Springer, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Sotier, F.

Stark, S.P.

Sucha, G.

Suzuki, T.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys.21, 1115–1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M.S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.34, 2015–2017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sysoliatin, A.A.

A.V. Andrianov, A.V. Kim, S.V. Muraviov, and A.A. Sysoliatin, “Generation of optical soliton pulses smoothly tunable in a wide frequency range in silica fibers with variable dispersion,” JETP Letters85, 364–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terry, F.L.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

Thomsen, C.L.

Trebino, R.

K.W. DeLong, D.N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tverjanovich, A.S.

Walewski, J.W.

C.L. Hagen, J.W. Walewski, and S.T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber With an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.18, 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

WondraczekL, L.

Wunram, M.

Xia, C.A.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry, M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express31, 2553–2555 (2006).

Yan, X.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys.21, 1115–1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M.S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.34, 2015–2017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatsenko, Yu.

Zhu, M.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K.W. DeLong, D.N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.7, 518–524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.

C.L. Hagen, J.W. Walewski, and S.T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber With an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.18, 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP Letters

A.V. Andrianov, A.V. Kim, S.V. Muraviov, and A.A. Sysoliatin, “Generation of optical soliton pulses smoothly tunable in a wide frequency range in silica fibers with variable dispersion,” JETP Letters85, 364–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys.21, 1115–1121 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

V.A. Kamynin, A.S. Kurkov, and V.M. Mashinsky, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.7 μm in the germanate-glass-core and silica-glass-cladding fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 219–222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

A.V. Andrianov, E.A. Anashkina, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of hybrid Er-doped laser/Yb-doped amplifier system for high power ultrashort pulse generation,” Opt. Lett.35, 3805–3807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Agger, S.T. Sørensen, C.L. Thomsen, S.R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36, 2596–2598 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bencheikh, S. Richard, G. Mélin, G. Krabshuis, F. Gooijer, and J.A. Levenson, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation in highly germanium-doped fiber,” Opt. Lett.37, 289–291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumkar, G. Krauss, M. Wunram, D. Fehrenbacher, U. Demirbas, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond coherent seeding of a broadband Tm:fiber amplifier by an Er:fiber system,” Opt. Lett.37, 554–556 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.R. Phillips, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, A.C. Lin, C. Langrock, M. Snure, D. Bliss, M. Zhu, I. Hartl, J.S. Harris, M. E. Fermann, and M.M. Fejer, “Widely tunable midinfrared difference frequency generation in orientation-patterned GaAs pumped with a femtosecond Tm-fiber system,” Opt. Lett.37, 2928–2930 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Attosecond relative timing jitter and 13 fs tunable pulses from a two-branch femtosecond Er:fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32, 3504–3506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M.S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.34, 2015–2017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. Yatsenko and A. Mavritsky, “D-scan measurement of nonlinear refractive index in fibers heavily doped with GeO2,” Opt. Lett.32, 3257–3259 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A.V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901–203904 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I.T. Sorokina, Mid-infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (Springer, 2008).
[CrossRef]

M.E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and D.J. Harter, “Modular, high energy, widely-tunable ultrafast fiber source,” US patent US6885683.

A.W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. Calculated dispersion profile (b) and effective mode area (c) of 30 mol.% and 97 mol.% GeO2-doped fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectrum measured with spectrometer (black) and calculated for the FROG-pulse (red) for output power of 50 mW. (b) Retrieved intensity profile (red) and phase (black) of the FROG-pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical spectrum measured with spectrometer (black) and calculated for the FROG-pulses at 2.3 μm (red) and at 2.1 μm (blue) for output power of 120 mW. FROG-traces (b,d) of the soliton pulses at 2.3 and 2.1 μm, (c,e) their corresponding retrieved intensity profiles (red and blue) and phases (black).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental spectrum after two consecutively spliced fibers with 30 and 97 mol.% GeO2 content.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Numerical calculation of dispersion profiles for the fibers with the core profile shown in the inset. (b) Spectral evolution of the 0.8 nJ sech-shape 80 fs pulse during propagation in the two consecutive fibers of the same lengths with dashed blue and dashed red dispersion profiles, respectively. Optical losses at the fiber splice (at 200 cm) are 30%. (c) The intensity distribution of the longest wavelength soliton in the time domain.

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