Abstract

For silicon wire based ring resonator biosensors, we investigate the simultaneous retrieval of changes in the fluidic refractive index ∆nc and surface adsorbed molecular film thickness ∆dF. This can be achieved by monitoring the resonance shifts of the sensors operating in the TE and TM polarizations at the same time. Although this procedure is straightforward in principle, significant retrieval errors can be introduced due to deviations in the sensor waveguide cross-sections from their nominal values in the range commonly encountered for silicon photonic wire devices. We propose a method of determining the fabricated waveguide size using the group indices derived from measured free spectral range (FSR) of the resonators. We further demonstrate that using experimentally measured group index values, the waveguide size can be determined to accuracies of ± 2 nm in width and ± 1 nm in height. By using this procedure, ∆nc and ∆dF can be obtained to a precision of within 10% of the true values using optically measurable parameters, improving the retrieval accuracy by more than 3 times.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.121(1), 158–177 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, R. W. McKinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(9), 1172–1180 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. Lukosz, “Priciples and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.6(3), 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, R. W. McKinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(9), 1172–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, R. W. McKinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(9), 1172–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Densmore, A.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gobi, K. V.

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, R. W. McKinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(9), 1172–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, R. W. McKinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(9), 1172–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-H.

Liu, Q. Y.

Lopinski, G.

Luebbert, C. C.

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, “Priciples and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.6(3), 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, “Sensitivity of grating couplers as integrated-optical chemical sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B6(2), 209–220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

Matsubara, K.

McKinnon, R.

McKinnon, R. W.

Mekis, A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Messaoudène, S.

Minami, S.

Mischki, T.

Miura, N.

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

Raj, K.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, R. W. McKinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(9), 1172–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvaraja, S.

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shankaran, D. R.

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Storey, C.

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thacker, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tiefenthaler, K.

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vachon, M.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

Wang, S.

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D.-X.

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, R. W. McKinnon, E. Post, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, C. Storey, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Wavelength-dependent model of a ring resonator sensor excited by a directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(9), 1172–1180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biosens. Bioelectron.

W. Lukosz, “Priciples and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.6(3), 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J.3(3), 567–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Photonics Rev.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, M. Vachon, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, “Selecting the polarization in silicon photonic wire components,” Proc. SPIE8266, 82660G, 82660G-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.121(1), 158–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, N. A. Sabourin, H. Mcintosh, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, M. Vachon, A. Delâge, W. Sinclair, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “A fully integrated silicon photonic wire sensor array chip and reader instrument,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (The Royal Society, London, 2011), pp. 350–352.

J. Escorihucla, M. J. Banuls, J. G. Castello, V. Toccafondo, J. G. Ruperez, R. Puchades, and A. Maquicira, “Chemical silicon surface modification and bioreceptor attachment to develop competitive integrated photonic biosensors,” in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, L. M. Lecuga ed. (Springer, 2012)

S. Janz, A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, J. H. Schmid, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, and R. Mckinnon, “Silicon photonic wire waveguide sensors,” in Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection, F. Xudong, ed. (Springer, 2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional view of a silicon photonic wire waveguide sensor. (b) Schematic layout of our spiral cavity resonator sensors for TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elements of the inverse sensitivity matrix versus (a)(c) waveguide width at a height of 260 nm and (b)(d) waveguide height at a width of 450 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overall elements of the inverse sensitivity matrix S −1 versus (a) waveguide width at a height of 260 nm and (b) waveguide height at a width of 450 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evaluation of the retrieval accuracy as a function of waveguide dimension changes in (a) waveguide width and (b) waveguide height. Two cases were estimated: ∆Neff(∆nc): ∆Neff(∆nc) ~“10: 1” and “1: 1”.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Group indices as the functions of waveguide width and height for (a) TE mode and (b) TM mode. The upper cladding is water and the contour interval was set to be 0.01 in both figures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured spectrum for spiral cavity resonator with the cavity length of 700 µm, and (b) calculated group index from the measured spectrum, and it’s deviation from the polynomial fit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distribution of (a) waveguide width and (b) waveguide height as the functions of group indices for TE and TM mode with the color interval of 2 nm and 1 nm, respectively. The squares with white dashed line show the range of measurement accuracy for Ng.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimized fitting parameters for Eq. (4).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( Δ N eff(TE) Δ N eff(TM) )=( N eff(TE) n c N eff(TE) d F N eff(TM) n c N eff(TM) d F )( Δ n c Δ d F ).
( Δ n c Δ d F )=(1/detS)( N eff(TM) d F N eff(TE) d F N eff(TM) n c N eff(TE) n c )( Δ N eff(TE) Δ N eff(TM) ) detS= N eff(TE) n c N eff(TM) d F N eff(TE) d F N eff(TM) n c 0
N g(TE,TM) = N g0(TE,TM) +( H H 0 )[ N g(TE,TM) H ]+( W W 0 )[ N g(TE,TM) W ]+ ( H H 0 ) 2 [ 2 N g(TE,TM) 2 H 2 ]+ ( W W 0 ) 2 [ 2 N g(TE,TM) 2 W 2 ]+( H H 0 )( W W 0 )[ 2 N g(TE,TM) HW ]
W,H=[ W 0 , H 0 ]+( N g(TE) N g0(TE) )[ W,H N g(TE) ]+( N g(TM) N g0(TM) )[ W,H N g(TM) ]+ ( N g(TE) N g0(TE) ) 2 [ 2 W,H 2 N g(TE) 2 ]+ ( N g(TM) N g0(TM) ) 2 [ 2 W,H 2 N g(TM) 2 ]+ ( N g(TE) N g0(TE) )( N g(TM) N g0(TM) )[ 2 W,H N g(TE) N g(TM) ].

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