Abstract

We present a narrow-bandwidth, widely tunable fiber laser source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectro-microscopy. The required, synchronized, two-color pulse trains are generated by optical-parametric amplification in a photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). The four-wave-mixing process in the PCF is pumped by a 140ps, alignment-free fiber laser system, and it is seeded by a tunable continuous-wave laser; hence, a high spectral resolution of up to 1cm−1 is obtained in the CARS process. Since the PCF is pumped close to its zero-dispersion wavelength, a broad parametric gain can be accessed, resulting in a large tuning range for the generated signal and idler wavelengths. CARS spectroscopy and microscopy is demonstrated, probing different molecular vibrational modes within the accessible region between 1200cm−1 and 3800cm−1.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annual Rev. Analyt. Chem. (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” The Analyst134(6), 1046–1057 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Krauss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, D. Träutlein, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Selm, M. Winterhalder, and A. Zumbusch, “Compact coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a picosecond two-color Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2847–2849 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Selm, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, G. Krauss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband background-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy based on a compact Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3282–3284 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Gottschall, M. Baumgartl, A. Sagnier, J. Rothhardt, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber-based source for multiplex-CARS microscopy based on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express20(11), 12004–12013 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express12(2), 299–309 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Nodop, C. Jauregui, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient high-power generation of visible and mid-infrared light by degenerate four-wave-mixing in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.34(22), 3499–3501 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Baumgartl, M. Chemnitz, C. Jauregui, T. Meyer, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “All-fiber laser source for CARS microscopy based on fiber optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Express20(4), 4484–4493 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, J. Abreu-Afonso, A. Díez, T. Meyer, B. Dietzek, M. Rothhardt, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Alignment-free, all-spliced fiber laser source for CARS microscopy based on four-wave-mixing,” Opt. Express20(19), 21010–21018 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).
  13. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).
  14. S. Hädrich, T. Gottschall, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “CW seeded optical parametric amplifier providing wavelength and pulse duration tunable nearly transform limited pulses,” Opt. Express18(3), 3158–3167 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. J. Mosley, S. A. Bateman, L. Lavoute, and W. J. Wadsworth, “Low-noise, high-brightness, tunable source of picosecond pulsed light in the near-infrared and visible,” Opt. Express19(25), 25337–25345 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).3382054
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. A. Ball and W. W. Morey, “Compression-tuned single-frequency Bragg grating fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.19(23), 1979–1981 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization rotation and thermal motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave-mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.35(5), 376–379 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Bergner, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, D. Akimov, B. Dietzek, D. Malsch, T. Henkel, S. Schlücker, and J. Popp, “Quantitative CARS microscopic detection of analytes and their isotopomers in a two-channel microfluidic chip,” Small5(24), 2816–2818 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (5)

2008 (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annual Rev. Analyt. Chem. (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1994 (1)

1979 (1)

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization rotation and thermal motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave-mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.35(5), 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abreu-Afonso, J.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Akimov, D.

G. Bergner, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, D. Akimov, B. Dietzek, D. Malsch, T. Henkel, S. Schlücker, and J. Popp, “Quantitative CARS microscopic detection of analytes and their isotopomers in a two-channel microfluidic chip,” Small5(24), 2816–2818 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ball, G. A.

Bateman, S. A.

Baumgartl, M.

Bergner, G.

G. Bergner, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, D. Akimov, B. Dietzek, D. Malsch, T. Henkel, S. Schlücker, and J. Popp, “Quantitative CARS microscopic detection of analytes and their isotopomers in a two-channel microfluidic chip,” Small5(24), 2816–2818 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

Cerullo, G.

Chatzipapadopoulos, S.

G. Bergner, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, D. Akimov, B. Dietzek, D. Malsch, T. Henkel, S. Schlücker, and J. Popp, “Quantitative CARS microscopic detection of analytes and their isotopomers in a two-channel microfluidic chip,” Small5(24), 2816–2818 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemnitz, M.

Dietzek, B.

Díez, A.

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annual Rev. Analyt. Chem. (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freudiger, C. W.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

Gambetta, A.

Giuliano, C. R.

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization rotation and thermal motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave-mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.35(5), 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gottschall, T.

Hädrich, S.

Hanke, T.

Henkel, T.

G. Bergner, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, D. Akimov, B. Dietzek, D. Malsch, T. Henkel, S. Schlücker, and J. Popp, “Quantitative CARS microscopic detection of analytes and their isotopomers in a two-channel microfluidic chip,” Small5(24), 2816–2818 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herda, R.

Holtom, G. R.

S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).3382054
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jauregui, C.

Joly, N.

Knight, J.

Kong, L.

Krafft, C.

C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” The Analyst134(6), 1046–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, G.

Kumar, V.

Lam, J. F.

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization rotation and thermal motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave-mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.35(5), 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lavoute, L.

Lefrancois, S.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Limpert, J.

Lind, R. C.

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization rotation and thermal motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave-mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.35(5), 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Malsch, D.

G. Bergner, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, D. Akimov, B. Dietzek, D. Malsch, T. Henkel, S. Schlücker, and J. Popp, “Quantitative CARS microscopic detection of analytes and their isotopomers in a two-channel microfluidic chip,” Small5(24), 2816–2818 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzoni, C.

Marangoni, M.

Meyer, T.

Morey, W. W.

Mosley, P. J.

Nodop, D.

Popp, J.

Ramponi, R.

Reichman, J.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothhardt, J.

Rothhardt, M.

Russell, P.

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagnier, A.

Schimpf, D.

Schlücker, S.

G. Bergner, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, D. Akimov, B. Dietzek, D. Malsch, T. Henkel, S. Schlücker, and J. Popp, “Quantitative CARS microscopic detection of analytes and their isotopomers in a two-channel microfluidic chip,” Small5(24), 2816–2818 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, P.

Sell, A.

Selm, R.

Stanley, C. M.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, D. G.

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization rotation and thermal motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave-mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.35(5), 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Träutlein, D.

Tünnermann, A.

Wadsworth, W.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Winterhalder, M.

Wise, F. W.

Xie, X. S.

S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).3382054
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annual Rev. Analyt. Chem. (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zach, A.

Zumbusch, A.

Annual Rev. Analyt. Chem. (Palo Alto Calif) (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annual Rev. Analyt. Chem. (Palo Alto Calif)1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization rotation and thermal motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave-mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.35(5), 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express12(2), 299–309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, T. Gottschall, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “CW seeded optical parametric amplifier providing wavelength and pulse duration tunable nearly transform limited pulses,” Opt. Express18(3), 3158–3167 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, S. A. Bateman, L. Lavoute, and W. J. Wadsworth, “Low-noise, high-brightness, tunable source of picosecond pulsed light in the near-infrared and visible,” Opt. Express19(25), 25337–25345 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Baumgartl, M. Chemnitz, C. Jauregui, T. Meyer, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “All-fiber laser source for CARS microscopy based on fiber optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Express20(4), 4484–4493 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gottschall, M. Baumgartl, A. Sagnier, J. Rothhardt, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber-based source for multiplex-CARS microscopy based on degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Express20(11), 12004–12013 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, J. Abreu-Afonso, A. Díez, T. Meyer, B. Dietzek, M. Rothhardt, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Alignment-free, all-spliced fiber laser source for CARS microscopy based on four-wave-mixing,” Opt. Express20(19), 21010–21018 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).3382054
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Selm, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, G. Krauss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband background-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy based on a compact Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett.35(19), 3282–3284 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Krauss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, D. Träutlein, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Selm, M. Winterhalder, and A. Zumbusch, “Compact coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a picosecond two-color Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2847–2849 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nodop, C. Jauregui, D. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Efficient high-power generation of visible and mid-infrared light by degenerate four-wave-mixing in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.34(22), 3499–3501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Ball and W. W. Morey, “Compression-tuned single-frequency Bragg grating fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.19(23), 1979–1981 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

G. Bergner, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, D. Akimov, B. Dietzek, D. Malsch, T. Henkel, S. Schlücker, and J. Popp, “Quantitative CARS microscopic detection of analytes and their isotopomers in a two-channel microfluidic chip,” Small5(24), 2816–2818 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Analyst (1)

C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” The Analyst134(6), 1046–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

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