Abstract

Miniature optical components at the wavelength scale remain today a theoretically opened challenging problem of great technological interest. Appart from refractive micro-optics, plasmonics have been proposed to realize micro lenses with properly designed planar metallic nano-patterns. We show in this paper that efficient light focusing at the diffraction limit with higher transmission can be obtained with micro-structures much easier to fabricate than nano ones, such as a simple micro-slit studied here as an example. Optical properties are attributed to diffraction and a quantitative excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (6)

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J.-C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, “Broadband plasmonic microlenses based on patches of nanoholes,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4111–4116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen and D. R. Cumming, “Visible light focusing demonstrated by plasmonic lenses based on nano-slits in an aluminum film,” Opt. Express18(14), 14788–14793 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and X. Zhou, “Plasmonic lenses: a review,” Plasmonics5(3), 287–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Çetin, K. Güven, and Ö. E. Müstecaplioğlu, “Active control of focal length and beam deflection in a metallic nanoslit array lens with multiple sources,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1980–1982 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

P. Ginzburg, E. Hirshberg, and M. Orenstein, “Rigorous analysis of vectorial plasmonic diffraction: single- and double-slit experiments,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. B. Brongersma, and S. M. L. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slitsArrays in metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, C. Zhao, J. Wang, and J. Zhang, “An experimental study of the plasmonic Talbot effect,” Opt. Express17(22), 19757–19762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

F. M. Huang, T. S. Kao, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanohole array as a Lens,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2469–2472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, and E. Popov, “Spectral analysis of three-dimensional photonic jets,” Opt. Express16(18), 14200–14212 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Jackson, J. Chen, R. Qiang, F. Capolino, and A. A. Oliner, “The role of leaky plasmon waves in the directive beaming of light through a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express16(26), 21271–21281 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vurth, P. L. Baldeck, O. Stephan, and I. Grosu, “Fabrication of 3D metallic micro/nanostructures by two-photon absorption,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Materials10, 2199–2204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, “Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 642–644 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1836 (1)

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science,” Philos. Mag.9, 401–407 (1836).

Baldeck, P. L.

S. Zaiba, T. Kouriba, O. Ziane, O. Stéphan, J. Bosson, G. Vitrant, and P. L. Baldeck, “Metallic nanowires can lead to wavelength-scale microlenses and microlens arrays,” Opt. Express20(14), 15516–15521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vurth, P. L. Baldeck, O. Stephan, and I. Grosu, “Fabrication of 3D metallic micro/nanostructures by two-photon absorption,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Materials10, 2199–2204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

Bosson, J.

Brantley, C.

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, E. S. B.

L. Verslegers, B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. B. Brongersma, and S. M. L. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slitsArrays in metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).

Capolino, F.

Catrysse, B.

L. Verslegers, B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. B. Brongersma, and S. M. L. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slitsArrays in metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).

Çetin, A. E.

Chang, Y.-C.

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, K.-P.

Chen, M.-K.

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chen, Y.

F. M. Huang, T. S. Kao, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanohole array as a Lens,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2469–2472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cumming, D. R.

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devilez, A.

Drachev, V. P.

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, E.

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. M. L.

L. Verslegers, B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. B. Brongersma, and S. M. L. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slitsArrays in metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).

Fedotov, V. A.

F. M. Huang, T. S. Kao, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanohole array as a Lens,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2469–2472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu and X. Zhou, “Plasmonic lenses: a review,” Plasmonics5(3), 287–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J.-C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, “Broadband plasmonic microlenses based on patches of nanoholes,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4111–4116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, P.

P. Ginzburg, E. Hirshberg, and M. Orenstein, “Rigorous analysis of vectorial plasmonic diffraction: single- and double-slit experiments,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goh, X. M.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosu, I.

L. Vurth, P. L. Baldeck, O. Stephan, and I. Grosu, “Fabrication of 3D metallic micro/nanostructures by two-photon absorption,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Materials10, 2199–2204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Güven, K.

Hirshberg, E.

P. Ginzburg, E. Hirshberg, and M. Orenstein, “Rigorous analysis of vectorial plasmonic diffraction: single- and double-slit experiments,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. M.

F. M. Huang, T. S. Kao, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanohole array as a Lens,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2469–2472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyun, J. K.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J.-C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, “Broadband plasmonic microlenses based on patches of nanoholes,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4111–4116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, S.

Jackson, D. R.

Kao, T. S.

F. M. Huang, T. S. Kao, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanohole array as a Lens,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2469–2472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, H. K.

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, “Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 642–644 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kouriba, T.

Lalanne, P.

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauhon, L. J.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J.-C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, “Broadband plasmonic microlenses based on patches of nanoholes,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4111–4116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. H.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J.-C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, “Broadband plasmonic microlenses based on patches of nanoholes,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4111–4116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindquist, N. C.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, C.

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazurowski, J.

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGuinness, L. P.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müstecaplioglu, Ö. E.

Nagpal, P.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odom, T. W.

H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J.-C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, “Broadband plasmonic microlenses based on patches of nanoholes,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4111–4116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S.-H.

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliner, A. A.

Orenstein, M.

P. Ginzburg, E. Hirshberg, and M. Orenstein, “Rigorous analysis of vectorial plasmonic diffraction: single- and double-slit experiments,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.11(11), 114024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

Qiang, R.

Roberts, A.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, “Plasmonic lenses formed by two-dimensional nanometric cross-shaped aperture arrays for Fresnel-region focusing,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1936–1940 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruffin, P.

M.-K. Chen, Y.-C. Chang, C.-E. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Mazurowski, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, C. Brantley, E. Edwards, and C. Luo, “Tunable terahertz plasmonic lenses based on semiconductor microslits,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.52(4), 979–981 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, J. J.

Shalaev, V. M.

Stephan, O.

L. Vurth, P. L. Baldeck, O. Stephan, and I. Grosu, “Fabrication of 3D metallic micro/nanostructures by two-photon absorption,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Materials10, 2199–2204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stéphan, O.

Stout, B.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, “Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(4), 642–644 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, H. F.

H. F. Talbot, “Facts relating to optical science,” Philos. Mag.9, 401–407 (1836).

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H. P.

Veerman, J. A. C.

Verslegers, L.

L. Verslegers, B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. B. Brongersma, and S. M. L. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slitsArrays in metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).

Vitrant, G.

Vurth, L.

L. Vurth, P. L. Baldeck, O. Stephan, and I. Grosu, “Fabrication of 3D metallic micro/nanostructures by two-photon absorption,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Materials10, 2199–2204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

White, J. S.

L. Verslegers, B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. B. Brongersma, and S. M. L. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slitsArrays in metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).

Wolff, P. A.

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[CrossRef]

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L. Verslegers, B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. B. Brongersma, and S. M. L. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slitsArrays in metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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H. Gao, J. K. Hyun, M. H. Lee, J.-C. Yang, L. J. Lauhon, and T. W. Odom, “Broadband plasmonic microlenses based on patches of nanoholes,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4111–4116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Huang, T. S. Kao, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanohole array as a Lens,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2469–2472 (2008).
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L. Verslegers, B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. B. Brongersma, and S. M. L. Fan, “Planar lenses based on nanoscale slitsArrays in metallic film,” Nano Lett.9(1), 235–238 (2009).

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[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Plasmonics (1)

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O.Ziane, S.Zaiba, T.Kouriba, J.Bosson, G. Vitrant, and P. L. Baldeck, “Cylindrical planar microlens based on diffraction of parallel metallic nanowires,” accepted for publication in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of micro-slit light focusing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental and theoretical study of the diffraction pattern produced by a micro-slit.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of the focusing characteristics of the studied obscuring micro diffracting slits (OMDS). FWHMx is the lateral resolution in the transversal direction.

Equations (2)

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A(M)= 1 2π aperture e jk PM ¯ PM ¯ cos( n , PM )[ 1 PM ¯ jk ] A i (P) d 2 P
Δϕ= 2π λ n( Z f 2 + ( W 2 ) 2 ) Z f πn W 2 4λ Z f

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