Abstract

A method based on the chromaticity discrimination ellipses is proposed for calculating the color difference between two colors. This method calculates the color difference by counting the number of just noticeable differences between the two colors. The color difference formula CIEDE2000 and the proposed method are compared. It is shown that CIEDE2000 is not suitable for predicting the threshold color difference.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 7th ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1982).
  2. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), Industrial colour-difference evaluation, CIE Publication No. 116 (Vienna, 1995).
  3. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), Improvement to Industrial colour-difference evaluation, CIE Publication No. 114–2001 (Vienna, 2001).
  4. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl.26(5), 340–350 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Wen and H.-J. Ma, Investigation of Chromaticity Discrimination Ellipses for Displays,” in Society for Information Display 2012 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2012), pp. 725–728.
  6. R.-C. Wu, R. H. Wardman, and M. R. Luo, “A comparison of lightness contrast effects in CRT and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl.30(1), 13–20 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Xin, H.-L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, “Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl.30(5), 341–347 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.-S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl.24(5), 331–343 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2008

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

R.-C. Wu, R. H. Wardman, and M. R. Luo, “A comparison of lightness contrast effects in CRT and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl.30(1), 13–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Xin, H.-L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, “Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl.30(5), 341–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl.26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

S.-S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl.24(5), 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl.26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujine, T.

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guan, S.-S.

S.-S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl.24(5), 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, T.

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. C.

J. H. Xin, H.-L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, “Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl.30(5), 341–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

R.-C. Wu, R. H. Wardman, and M. R. Luo, “A comparison of lightness contrast effects in CRT and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl.30(1), 13–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl.26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl.24(5), 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, N.

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl.26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.-L.

J. H. Xin, H.-L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, “Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl.30(5), 341–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sugino, M.

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teragawa, M.

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wardman, R. H.

R.-C. Wu, R. H. Wardman, and M. R. Luo, “A comparison of lightness contrast effects in CRT and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl.30(1), 13–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R.-C.

R.-C. Wu, R. H. Wardman, and M. R. Luo, “A comparison of lightness contrast effects in CRT and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl.30(1), 13–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xin, J. H.

J. H. Xin, H.-L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, “Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl.30(5), 341–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl.26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R.-C. Wu, R. H. Wardman, and M. R. Luo, “A comparison of lightness contrast effects in CRT and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl.30(1), 13–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Xin, H.-L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, “Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl.30(5), 341–347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl.24(5), 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

T. Fujine, T. Kanda, Y. Yoshida, M. Sugino, M. Teragawa, Y. Yamamoto, and N. Ohta, “Bit depth needed for high image quality TV-evaluation using color distribution index,” J. Disp. Technol.4(3), 340–347 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Wen and H.-J. Ma, Investigation of Chromaticity Discrimination Ellipses for Displays,” in Society for Information Display 2012 International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2012), pp. 725–728.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 7th ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1982).

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), Industrial colour-difference evaluation, CIE Publication No. 116 (Vienna, 1995).

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), Improvement to Industrial colour-difference evaluation, CIE Publication No. 114–2001 (Vienna, 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MacAdam ellipses, the corresponding MacAdam fitting ellipses, and the corresponding ellipses predicted by the CIEDE2000 with ΔE00 = 1. The MacAdam ellipses and MacAdam fitting ellipses are enlarged tenfold. The CIEDE2000 ellipses are enlarged by a factor of 3.226. Ref [5]. measured the ellipses labeled from 1 to 4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A diagram showing the calculation method of the color difference metric based on chromaticity discrimination ellipses. In practice, the axis lengths and orientation angles of neighboring chromaticity discrimination ellipses are nearly the same. The differences shown in the diagram are exaggerated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Color differences ΔEde (thin data lines) and ΔE00 (thick data lines) versus hue angle h* for the two colors with (C*1, h*1) = (C*, h*) and (C*2, h*2) = (C* + ΔC*, h* + Δh*), where the chroma C* = 20 (red data lines), 40 (green data lines) and 60 (blue data lines); (a) ΔC* = 0, Δh* = 2.5°, (b) ΔC* = 2.5, Δh* = 0°, and (c) ΔC* = 2.5, Δh* = 2.5°.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g 11 (Δa*) 2 +2 g 12 Δa*Δb*+ g 22 (Δb*) 2 =1,
( Δ a * a ) 2 + ( Δ b * b ) 2 =1,
α( C*,h* )= 0i+j+kN α ijk ( C* ) i ( sinh* ) j ( cosh* ) k ,
Δ E de = ( ΔC* S C ) 2 + ( ΔH* S H ) 2 + R T ΔC*ΔH* ,

Metrics