Abstract

We report design improvements for evanescently coupled Germanium photodetectors grown at low temperature. The resulting photodetectors with 10 μm Ge length manufactured in a commercial CMOS process achieve >0.8 A/W responsivity over the entire C-band, with a device capacitance of <7 fF based on measured data.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 33, 690–701 (2010).
  15. M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 33, 690–701 (2010).

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Analui, B.

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Capellini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cercus, J.-L.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

Cohen, R.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 33, 690–701 (2010).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davids, P. S.

DeRose, C. T.

Dong, P.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, N.-N.

Fisher, M.

Fong, J.

Goossen, K.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gunn, C.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Halbwax, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heitzmann, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ho, R.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S.-I.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jan, W.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kopp, C.

Krishnamoorthy, A.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 33, 690–701 (2010).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kung, C.-C.

Laval, S.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lexau, J.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, F.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Y.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Majumdar, A.

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 33, 690–701 (2010).

Marris-Morini, D.

Masini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morse, M. M.

Nishi, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pascal, D.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Patil, D.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Polzer, A.

Qian, W.

Rai, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rouvière, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rozier, R.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

Sahni, S.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sarid, G.

Schwetman, H.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shinojima, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shubin, I. N.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Starbuck, A. L.

Thacker, H.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

Witzens, J.

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yin, T.

Zheng, X.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, H.

Zortman, W. A.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. (1)

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. 33, 690–701 (2010).

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE 6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. Ding, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, N. Duan, M.-B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4 (2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A 3-D cartoon of the Ge PD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A cross-sectional view of the Ge PD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top view of the improved Ge PD integrated with a DBR and fingered M1 electrodes. (b) Simulated optical power vs. position in the PD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Responsivity versus wavelength for PDs with 15 μm Ge length.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Responsivity versus wavelength for a PD with 10 μm Ge length.

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