Abstract

We report design improvements for evanescently coupled Germanium photodetectors grown at low temperature. The resulting photodetectors with 10 μm Ge length manufactured in a commercial CMOS process achieve >0.8 A/W responsivity over the entire C-band, with a device capacitance of <7 fF based on measured data.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 196572 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Ding, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, N. Duan, M.-B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4 (2012).
  8. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack.33, 690–701 (2010).
  15. M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, and P. S. Davids, “Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current,” Opt. Express19(25), 24897–24904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack.33, 690–701 (2010).

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 196572 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Analui, B.

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capellini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 196572 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cercus, J.-L.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

Cohen, R.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack.33, 690–701 (2010).

Davids, P. S.

DeRose, C. T.

Dong, P.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

Fisher, M.

Fong, J.

Goossen, K.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 196572 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halbwax, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.-I.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, C.

Krishnamoorthy, A.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack.33, 690–701 (2010).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

Laval, S.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, F.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Y.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Majumdar, A.

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack.33, 690–701 (2010).

Marris-Morini, D.

Masini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 196572 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. M.

Nishi, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polzer, A.

Qian, W.

Rai, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rouvière, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, R.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Sahni, S.

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 196572 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Schwetman, H.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I. N.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starbuck, A. L.

Thacker, H.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Witzens, J.

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 196572 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, T.

Zheng, X.

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, H.

Zortman, W. A.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “High-speed near infrared optical receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors integrated in a CMOS process,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008, 196572 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Krishnamoorthy, K. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack. (1)

A. Majumdar, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Alignment and performance considerations for capacitive, inductive, and optical proximity communication,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Pack.33, 690–701 (2010).

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44(7), 75402–75406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Witzens, G. Masini, S. Sahni, B. Analui, C. Gunn, and G. Capellini, “10Gbit/s transceiver on silicon,” Proc. SPIE6996, 699610, 699610-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, S. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Proc. SPIE7607, 760703, 760703-15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Ding, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, N. Duan, M.-B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, OW3G.4 (2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A 3-D cartoon of the Ge PD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A cross-sectional view of the Ge PD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top view of the improved Ge PD integrated with a DBR and fingered M1 electrodes. (b) Simulated optical power vs. position in the PD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Responsivity versus wavelength for PDs with 15 μm Ge length.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Responsivity versus wavelength for a PD with 10 μm Ge length.

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