Abstract

A hybrid spiral plasmonic lens that consists of alternating spiral slot and spiral triangular sub-aperture array can differentiate circular polarization of different handedness and enable a miniature circular polarization analyzer design with high efficiency. The improved performance compared to pure spiral slot lens comes from the fact that the hybrid lens is capable of focusing both the radial and the azimuthal polarization components of a circular polarization, doubling the coupling efficiency. In this paper, the spin-dependent plasmonic focusing properties of a spatially arranged triangular sub-aperture array and a hybrid spiral plasmonic lens are demonstrated using a collection mode near field scanning optical microscope. The coupling efficiency could be further improved through optimizing the geometry of the hybrid lens.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Zhan, “Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.31(11), 1726–1728 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Chen and Q. Zhan, “Realization of an evanescent Bessel beam via surface plasmon interference excited by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.34(6), 722–724 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Zhan, “Properties of circularly polarized vortex beams,” Opt. Lett.31(7), 867–869 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Miniature circular polarization analyzer with spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3047–3049 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 043903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. Wu, W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Two-photon fluorescence characterization of spiral plasmonic lenses as circular polarization analyzers,” Opt. Lett.35(11), 1755–1757 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Geometrical phase and surface plasmon focusing with azimuthal polarization,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 581–583 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Efficient miniature circular polarization analyzer design using hybrid spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1442–1444 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Wu, P. E. Powers, A. M. Sarangan, and Q. Zhan, “Optical characterization of wiregrid micropolarizers designed for infrared imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Lett.33(15), 1653–1655 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

2012

2010

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Two-photon fluorescence characterization of spiral plasmonic lenses as circular polarization analyzers,” Opt. Lett.35(11), 1755–1757 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Miniature circular polarization analyzer with spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3047–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen and Q. Zhan, “Realization of an evanescent Bessel beam via surface plasmon interference excited by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.34(6), 722–724 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, P. E. Powers, A. M. Sarangan, and Q. Zhan, “Optical characterization of wiregrid micropolarizers designed for infrared imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Lett.33(15), 1653–1655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Abeysinghe, D. C.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Two-photon fluorescence characterization of spiral plasmonic lenses as circular polarization analyzers,” Opt. Lett.35(11), 1755–1757 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Gorodetski, Y.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleiner, V.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. L.

Niv, A.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powers, P. E.

Sarangan, A. M.

Wu, Z.

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Zhan, Q.

W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Efficient miniature circular polarization analyzer design using hybrid spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1442–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Geometrical phase and surface plasmon focusing with azimuthal polarization,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 581–583 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Two-photon fluorescence characterization of spiral plasmonic lenses as circular polarization analyzers,” Opt. Lett.35(11), 1755–1757 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yang, W. Chen, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Miniature circular polarization analyzer with spiral plasmonic lens,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3047–3049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen and Q. Zhan, “Realization of an evanescent Bessel beam via surface plasmon interference excited by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.34(6), 722–724 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, P. E. Powers, A. M. Sarangan, and Q. Zhan, “Optical characterization of wiregrid micropolarizers designed for infrared imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Lett.33(15), 1653–1655 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, “Properties of circularly polarized vortex beams,” Opt. Lett.31(7), 867–869 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, “Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.31(11), 1726–1728 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic lens made of multiple concentric metallic rings under radially polarized illumination,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4320–4325 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, “Demonstration of nanofocusing by the use of plasmonic lens illuminated with radially polarized light,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2139–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, “Experimental confirmation of miniature spiral plasmonic lens as a circular polarization analyzer,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2075–2079 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(4), 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a plasmonic lens that consists of an array of triangular sub-apertures arranged in a circular shape. Azimuthally polarized light illuminates from the glass substrate side. Highly confined focal spot can be achieved at the center.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of 32 isosceles triangular sub-apertures arranged in (a) antisymmetric mode, and (b) symmetric mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured near field energy density distribution for an array of triangular sub-apertures arranged in antisymmetric mode under azimuthally polarized illumination. Multiple fringes corresponding to surface plasmon wave propagation are observed. Due to the apertured NSOM probe is more sensitive to |∇Ez|2, a dark center is obtained as expected. (b) Measured NSOM image for triangular sub-aperture array arranged in symmetric mode under azimuthally polarized illumination. The symmetric triangular sub-aperture array defocuses the azimuthally polarized illumination due to destructive interference caused by the geometric π-phase difference between the two sides of a triangular sub-aperture and between the adjacent sub-apertures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured near field energy density distribution for an array of triangular sub-apertures arranged in (a) antisymmetric mode (b) symmetric mode under radially polarized illumination. Both plasmonic lenses can produce plasmonic focusing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of (a) a spiral triangular sub-aperture array, and (b) a hybrid spiral lens in gold film fabricated with FIB milling.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured NSOM images for a left-handed spiral triangular sub-aperture array under (a) RHC and (b) LHC illumination. (c) Comparison of measured and calculated transverse profiles of the energy density distribution for the spiral triangular sub-aperture array under RHC illumination. Experimental result agrees with the simulation very well.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured NSOM images for a hybrid plasmonic lens with (a) RHC and (b) LHC illumination.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured NSOM images for a hybrid spiral lens with (a) RHC and (b) LHC illumination. An enlarged probe with an aperture size of approximately 200 nm was used to improve the coupling efficiency of longitudinal field. The hybrid spiral lens focuses RHC illumination into a solid spot, while defocusing LHC illumination into a doughnut spot with a dark center.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured circular polarization extinction ratio of a hybrid lens with respect to detector size.

Equations (1)

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r= r 0 + Λ 2π ϕ

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