Abstract

We report our experimental results for linear analog optical links that use phase or frequency modulation and optical discrimination. The discriminators are based on two architectures: a cascaded MZI FIR lattice filter and a ring assisted MZI (RAMZI) IIR filter. For both types of discriminators, we demonstrate > 6 dB improvement in the link’s third-order output intercept point (OIP3) over a MZM link. We show that the links have low second-order distortion when using balanced detection. Using high optical power, we demonstrate an OIP3 of 39.2 dBm. We also demonstrate 4.3dB improvement in signal compression.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Y. Li, R. Wang, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(18), 1340–1342 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

2010

Y. Li, R. Wang, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(18), 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express18(26), 27359–27370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F.-S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, and Y. Ohmori, “Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 270–276 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. Way, Y. Lo, T. Lee, and C. Lin, “Direct detection of closely spaced optical FM-FDM Gb/s microwave PSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(2), 176–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1964

Ammann, E. O.

Bhardwaj, A.

Y. Li, R. Wang, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(18), 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, C.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Bowers, J.

Y. Li, R. Wang, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(18), 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Cai, J.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M. A.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Chang, I. C.

Chen, E. Y.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Chen, Y. K.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Chen, Z.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choa, F. S.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choa, F.-S.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F.-S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Darcie, T.

DeSalvo, R.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Devgan, P. S.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, P.

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Fang, Y.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, L. T.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Gu, Y.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

Hoekman, M.

Ji, X.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jinguji, K.

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, and Y. Ohmori, “Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 270–276 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

Kang, J.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F.-S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Khurgin, J.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F.-S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klemens, F.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Lee, T.

W. Way, Y. Lo, T. Lee, and C. Lin, “Direct detection of closely spaced optical FM-FDM Gb/s microwave PSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(2), 176–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leinse, A.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, R. Wang, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(18), 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

W. Way, Y. Lo, T. Lee, and C. Lin, “Direct detection of closely spaced optical FM-FDM Gb/s microwave PSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(2), 176–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.

W. Way, Y. Lo, T. Lee, and C. Lin, “Direct detection of closely spaced optical FM-FDM Gb/s microwave PSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(2), 176–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marpaung, D.

McKinney, J. D.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, C.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Ohmori, Y.

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, and Y. Ohmori, “Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 270–276 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, and Y. Ohmori, “Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 270–276 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Peach, R.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Rasras, M. S.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Ristic, S.

Y. Li, R. Wang, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(18), 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roeloffzen, C.

Ru, G.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, K.

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, and Y. Ohmori, “Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 270–276 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Urick, V. J.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

Y. Li, R. Wang, A. Bhardwaj, S. Ristic, and J. Bowers, “High linearity InP-based phase modulators using a shallow quantum-well design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(18), 1340–1342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Way, W.

W. Way, Y. Lo, T. Lee, and C. Lin, “Direct detection of closely spaced optical FM-FDM Gb/s microwave PSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(2), 176–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. J.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and K. J. Williams, “Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.55(9), 1978–1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

J. M. Wyrwas and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5552–5562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wyrwas, J. M.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

J. M. Wyrwas and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(24), 5552–5562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F.-S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yii, K.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

Yu, X.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, F. S. Choa, X. Yu, J. Cai, J. Yan, X. Ji, Y. Gu, Y. Fang, Y. Sun, G. Ru, and Z. Chen, “A model for optimization of the performance of frequency-modulated DFB semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(4), 473–482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, and Y. Ohmori, “Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 270–276 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Yii, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “A reconfigurable linear optical FM discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).

W. Way, Y. Lo, T. Lee, and C. Lin, “Direct detection of closely spaced optical FM-FDM Gb/s microwave PSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(2), 176–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F.-S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diagram of a phase-modulated direct-detection photonic link (b) Diagram of a frequency-modulated direct-detection link (c) Desired amplitude and phase for the filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Filter stage for an FIR lattice filter (b) Filter stage for an IIR, RAMZI filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the system used for characterization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Layout of FIR filter chip. (b) Achieved filter amplitude and phase.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Fundamental and third-order intermodulation distortion versus laser wavelength. The modulation power is fixed at 10 dBm and the photocurrent is fixed at 0.11 mA. (b) Fundamental and third-order intermodulation distortion versus modulation power. The photocurrent is fixed at 0.11 mA and the wavelength is fixed at 1549.93 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Layout of IIR filter chip. (b) Achieved filter amplitude and phase.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Output intercept point of third-order intermodulation distortion versus laser wavelength in simulation and experiment. The total photocurrent is fixed at 10.5 mA and the modulation frequency is 5 GHz. The theoretical OIP3 of a link with a dual-output MZM at the same received photocurrent is also plotted in the figure. (b) OIP3 and OIP2 versus modulation frequency at a fixed photocurrent of 10.5 mA and wavelength of 1549.964 nm. (c) Link gain.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Output power versus modulation power compared to a dual-output Mach-Zehdner modulator measured experimentally. The frequency is fixed at 3.3 GHz and the effective DC photocurrent at 141 mA. (b) OIP3 versus effective DC photocurrent. The frequency is fixed at 4.0 GHz, and the modulation power is 0 dBm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Link gain versus modulation frequency for the FM link versus the PM + IIR link. (b) Distortion versus modulation frequency, compared to the results of the PM + IIR link.

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