Abstract

We present a novel design of an electro-optically modulated coupled-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (CC-VCSEL) with traveling wave electrodes of the modulator cavity, which allows to overcome the RC time constant of a traditional lumped electrode structures. The CC-VCSEL optical design is based on longitudinal mode switching which has recently experimentally demonstrated a record modulation speed. We carry out segmented transmission line electrical design of the modulator cavity in order to compensate for the low impedance of the modulator section and to match the 50 Ω electrical network. We have optimized two types of highly efficient modulator structures reaching −3 dB electrical cut-off frequency of fcut-off = 330 GHz with maximum reflection of −22 dB in the range from fLF = 100 MHz to fcut-off and 77 – 89% modulation efficiency.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (3)

P. Moser, P. Wolf, J.A. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, A. Mutig, W. Unrau, N.N. Ledentsov, W. Hofmann, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed VCSELs for energy efficient computer interconnects,” Proc. of SPIE8432, 843202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Germann, W. Hofmann, A. M. Nadtochiy, J.-H. Schulze, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, and D. Bimberg, “Electro-optical resonance modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(5), 5099–5107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zujewski, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Electro-optically modulated coupled-cavity VCSELs: electrical design optimization for high-speed operation,” Proc. of SPIE8432, 84320C (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, and I. A. Young, “Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, K. L. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, and K. D. Choquette, “Push-Pull Modulation of a Composite-Resonator Vertical-Cavity Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46, 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Panajotov, M. Zujewski, and H. Thienpont, “Coupled-cavity surface-emitting lasers: spectral and polarization threshold characteristics and electrooptic switching,” Opt. Express18, 27525–27533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kogel, A. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, and A. Joel, “40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett.46(14), 1014–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. N. Al-Omari, I. K. Al-Kofahi, and K. L. Lear, “Fabrication, performance and parasitic parameter extraction of 850 nm high-speed vertical-cavity lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, B. Stoltz, L. Thylen, R. Schatz, and S. Hammerfeldt, “Monolithically Integrated 100 GHz DFB-TWEAM,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(16), 3410–3415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, B. Stoltz, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically Integrated DFB-EA for 100 Gb/s Ethernet,” IEEE Electron Dev. Lett.29(12), 1312–1314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Y. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. P. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrahigh-speed electrooptically-modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. of SPIE6889, H8890 (2008).

2007 (2)

J. Van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. Oktyabrsky, “Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator,” Proc. of SPIE6484, A4840 (2007).

Y. C. Chang, C. S. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High-efficiency, high-speed vcsels with 35Gbit/s error-free operation,” Electron. Lett.43(19), 1022–1024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Grasso, D. K. Serkland, G. M. Peake, K. M. Geib, and K. D. Choquette, “Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 1248–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moeller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (> 35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006, 2699–2701 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Al-Omari and K. Lear, “Dielectric characteristics of spin-coated dielectric films using on-wafer parallel-plate capacitors at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul.12, 1151–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, and U. Eriksson, “Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 172–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Badilita, J. F. Carlin, M. Illegems, M. Brunner, G. Vershaffelt, and K. Panajotov, “Control of polarization switching in vertical coupled-cavities surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 365–367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

2003 (1)

R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, and U. Eriksson, “Microwave CAD circuit Modeling of a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.51(4, Part 1), 1117–1128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Savage, “Linking with light [high-speed optical interconnects],” IEEE Spectros. 39, 32–36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. P. Earnshaw and D. W. E. Allsopp, “Electrooptic Effects in GaAsAlGaAs Narrow Coupled Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37, 897–904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Parasitics and design considerations on oxide-implant VC-SELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13, 1274–1276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. Bhatnagar, D. W. E. Allsopp, X. Chen, M. P. Earnshaw, and W. Batty, “Eletrorefraction Associated with WannierStark Localization in Strongly Coupled Three-Quantum-Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36, 702–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Hudgings, R. Stone, S. Lim, K. Lau, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Comparative study of the analog performance of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under gain and cavity loss modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77, 2092–2094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12, 1316–1318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, and K. Geib, “Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 3020–3022 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Carlin, R. Stanley, P. Pellandini, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “The dual wavelength Bi-vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 908–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Michler, M. Hilpert, and G. Reiner, “Dynamics of dual-wavelength emission from a coupled semiconductor microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2073–2075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, and C. Weisbuch, “Coupled semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(16), 2093–2095 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. Nakwaski, M. Osinski, and J. Cheng, “Spreading resistance in proton-implanted vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 3101–3103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alduino, A.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Al-Kofahi, I. K.

A. N. Al-Omari, I. K. Al-Kofahi, and K. L. Lear, “Fabrication, performance and parasitic parameter extraction of 850 nm high-speed vertical-cavity lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

M. P. Earnshaw and D. W. E. Allsopp, “Electrooptic Effects in GaAsAlGaAs Narrow Coupled Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37, 897–904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bhatnagar, D. W. E. Allsopp, X. Chen, M. P. Earnshaw, and W. Batty, “Eletrorefraction Associated with WannierStark Localization in Strongly Coupled Three-Quantum-Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36, 702–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Al-Omari, A.

A. Al-Omari and K. Lear, “Dielectric characteristics of spin-coated dielectric films using on-wafer parallel-plate capacitors at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul.12, 1151–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Al-Omari, A. N.

A. N. Al-Omari, I. K. Al-Kofahi, and K. L. Lear, “Fabrication, performance and parasitic parameter extraction of 850 nm high-speed vertical-cavity lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Badilita, V.

V. Badilita, J. F. Carlin, M. Illegems, M. Brunner, G. Vershaffelt, and K. Panajotov, “Control of polarization switching in vertical coupled-cavities surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 365–367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, B.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Batty, W.

A. Bhatnagar, D. W. E. Allsopp, X. Chen, M. P. Earnshaw, and W. Batty, “Eletrorefraction Associated with WannierStark Localization in Strongly Coupled Three-Quantum-Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36, 702–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatnagar, A.

A. Bhatnagar, D. W. E. Allsopp, X. Chen, M. P. Earnshaw, and W. Batty, “Eletrorefraction Associated with WannierStark Localization in Strongly Coupled Three-Quantum-Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36, 702–707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

T. D. Germann, W. Hofmann, A. M. Nadtochiy, J.-H. Schulze, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, and D. Bimberg, “Electro-optical resonance modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(5), 5099–5107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Moser, P. Wolf, J.A. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, A. Mutig, W. Unrau, N.N. Ledentsov, W. Hofmann, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed VCSELs for energy efficient computer interconnects,” Proc. of SPIE8432, 843202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kogel, A. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, and A. Joel, “40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett.46(14), 1014–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Y. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. P. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrahigh-speed electrooptically-modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. of SPIE6889, H8890 (2008).

Bour, D. P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braunisch, H.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Brunner, M.

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M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12, 1316–1318 (2000).
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V. Badilita, J. F. Carlin, M. Illegems, M. Brunner, G. Vershaffelt, and K. Panajotov, “Control of polarization switching in vertical coupled-cavities surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 365–367 (2004).
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C. Chen, K. L. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, and K. D. Choquette, “Push-Pull Modulation of a Composite-Resonator Vertical-Cavity Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46, 438–446 (2010).
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A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, and K. Geib, “Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 3020–3022 (1999).
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Choquette, K. D.

C. Chen, K. L. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, and K. D. Choquette, “Push-Pull Modulation of a Composite-Resonator Vertical-Cavity Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46, 438–446 (2010).
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D. M. Grasso, D. K. Serkland, G. M. Peake, K. M. Geib, and K. D. Choquette, “Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 1248–1254 (2006).
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Chow, W.

A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, and K. Geib, “Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 3020–3022 (1999).
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Chrostowski, L.

C. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Parasitics and design considerations on oxide-implant VC-SELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13, 1274–1276 (2001).
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Y. C. Chang, C. S. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High-efficiency, high-speed vcsels with 35Gbit/s error-free operation,” Electron. Lett.43(19), 1022–1024 (2007).
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Doany, F. E.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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Dolfi, D. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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M. P. Earnshaw and D. W. E. Allsopp, “Electrooptic Effects in GaAsAlGaAs Narrow Coupled Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37, 897–904 (2001).
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A. Bhatnagar, D. W. E. Allsopp, X. Chen, M. P. Earnshaw, and W. Batty, “Eletrorefraction Associated with WannierStark Localization in Strongly Coupled Three-Quantum-Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36, 702–707 (2000).
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Eriksson, U.

R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, and U. Eriksson, “Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 172–179 (2004).
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R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, and U. Eriksson, “Microwave CAD circuit Modeling of a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.51(4, Part 1), 1117–1128 (2003).
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Fischer, A.

A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, and K. Geib, “Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 3020–3022 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geib, K.

A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, and K. Geib, “Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 3020–3022 (1999).
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Geib, K. M.

D. M. Grasso, D. K. Serkland, G. M. Peake, K. M. Geib, and K. D. Choquette, “Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 1248–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Germann, T. D.

Grasso, D. M.

D. M. Grasso, D. K. Serkland, G. M. Peake, K. M. Geib, and K. D. Choquette, “Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 1248–1254 (2006).
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Grote, N.

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moeller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (> 35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006, 2699–2701 (2006).

Guckenberger, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12, 1316–1318 (2000).
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Gustavsson, J. S.

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kogel, A. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, and A. Joel, “40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett.46(14), 1014–1015 (2010).
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Hammerfeldt, S.

Heck, J.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Hegde, S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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Hibbs-Brenner, M.

C. Chen, K. L. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, and K. D. Choquette, “Push-Pull Modulation of a Composite-Resonator Vertical-Cavity Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46, 438–446 (2010).
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Horst, F.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, H.

A. Fischer, K. Choquette, W. Chow, H. Hou, and K. Geib, “Coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 3020–3022 (1999).
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Houdre, R.

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Hovel, R.

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12, 1316–1318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hudgings, J.

J. Hudgings, R. Stone, S. Lim, K. Lau, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Comparative study of the analog performance of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under gain and cavity loss modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77, 2092–2094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, M.

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12, 1316–1318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Carlin, R. Stanley, P. Pellandini, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “The dual wavelength Bi-vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 908–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, and C. Weisbuch, “Coupled semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(16), 2093–2095 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Illegems, M.

V. Badilita, J. F. Carlin, M. Illegems, M. Brunner, G. Vershaffelt, and K. Panajotov, “Control of polarization switching in vertical coupled-cavities surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 365–367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Irmscher, S.

R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, and U. Eriksson, “Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 172–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, and U. Eriksson, “Microwave CAD circuit Modeling of a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.51(4, Part 1), 1117–1128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joel, A.

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kogel, A. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, and A. Joel, “40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett.46(14), 1014–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

John, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. L.

C. Chen, K. L. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, and K. D. Choquette, “Push-Pull Modulation of a Composite-Resonator Vertical-Cavity Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46, 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalosha, V. P.

V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Y. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. P. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrahigh-speed electrooptically-modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. of SPIE6889, H8890 (2008).

Karachinsky, L. Y.

V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Y. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. P. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrahigh-speed electrooptically-modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. of SPIE6889, H8890 (2008).

Kash, J. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klein, H.

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moeller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (> 35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006, 2699–2701 (2006).

Kogel, B.

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kogel, A. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, and A. Joel, “40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett.46(14), 1014–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moeller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (> 35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006, 2699–2701 (2006).

Krestnikov, I. L.

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moeller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (> 35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006, 2699–2701 (2006).

Kucharski, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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Schares, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, R.

Schaub, J. D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, J.-H.

Schuster, C.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serkland, D. K.

D. M. Grasso, D. K. Serkland, G. M. Peake, K. M. Geib, and K. D. Choquette, “Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 1248–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shan, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shchukin, V. A.

V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Y. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. P. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrahigh-speed electrooptically-modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. of SPIE6889, H8890 (2008).

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moeller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (> 35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006, 2699–2701 (2006).

Stanley, R.

M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12, 1316–1318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Carlin, R. Stanley, P. Pellandini, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “The dual wavelength Bi-vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 908–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, and C. Weisbuch, “Coupled semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(16), 2093–2095 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, B.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, B. Stoltz, L. Thylen, R. Schatz, and S. Hammerfeldt, “Monolithically Integrated 100 GHz DFB-TWEAM,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(16), 3410–3415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, B. Stoltz, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically Integrated DFB-EA for 100 Gb/s Ethernet,” IEEE Electron Dev. Lett.29(12), 1312–1314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R.

J. Hudgings, R. Stone, S. Lim, K. Lau, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Comparative study of the analog performance of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under gain and cavity loss modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77, 2092–2094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strittmatter, A.

T. D. Germann, W. Hofmann, A. M. Nadtochiy, J.-H. Schulze, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, and D. Bimberg, “Electro-optical resonance modulation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(5), 5099–5107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Y. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. P. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrahigh-speed electrooptically-modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. of SPIE6889, H8890 (2008).

Tan, M. R. T.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Thomas, T.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Thylen, L.

Tokranov, V.

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, and I. A. Young, “Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. Oktyabrsky, “Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator,” Proc. of SPIE6484, A4840 (2007).

Trewhella, J. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trott, G. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, C. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Unrau, W.

P. Moser, P. Wolf, J.A. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, A. Mutig, W. Unrau, N.N. Ledentsov, W. Hofmann, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed VCSELs for energy efficient computer interconnects,” Proc. of SPIE8432, 843202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Eisden, J.

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, and I. A. Young, “Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. Oktyabrsky, “Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator,” Proc. of SPIE6484, A4840 (2007).

Vandentop, G.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Varanasi, M.

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, and I. A. Young, “Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. Oktyabrsky, “Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator,” Proc. of SPIE6484, A4840 (2007).

Vershaffelt, G.

V. Badilita, J. F. Carlin, M. Illegems, M. Brunner, G. Vershaffelt, and K. Panajotov, “Control of polarization switching in vertical coupled-cavities surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 365–367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. S.

Y. C. Chang, C. S. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High-efficiency, high-speed vcsels with 35Gbit/s error-free operation,” Electron. Lett.43(19), 1022–1024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

R. Stanley, R. Houdre, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, and C. Weisbuch, “Coupled semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(16), 2093–2095 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Westbergh, P.

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kogel, A. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, and A. Joel, “40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett.46(14), 1014–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Westergren, U.

Wolf, P.

P. Moser, P. Wolf, J.A. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, A. Mutig, W. Unrau, N.N. Ledentsov, W. Hofmann, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed VCSELs for energy efficient computer interconnects,” Proc. of SPIE8432, 843202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yakimov, M.

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, and I. A. Young, “Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. Oktyabrsky, “Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator,” Proc. of SPIE6484, A4840 (2007).

Young, I.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Young, I. A.

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, and I. A. Young, “Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eisden, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, E. M. Mohammed, I. A. Young, and S. Oktyabrsky, “Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator,” Proc. of SPIE6484, A4840 (2007).

Zujewski, M.

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J. Carlin, R. Stanley, P. Pellandini, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “The dual wavelength Bi-vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 908–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hudgings, R. Stone, S. Lim, K. Lau, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Comparative study of the analog performance of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser under gain and cavity loss modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77, 2092–2094 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, B. Kogel, A. Haglund, A. Larsson, A. Mutig, A. Nadtochiy, D. Bimberg, and A. Joel, “40 Gbit/s error-free operation of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett.46(14), 1014–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. (1)

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, B. Stoltz, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically Integrated DFB-EA for 100 Gb/s Ethernet,” IEEE Electron Dev. Lett.29(12), 1312–1314 (2008).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

C. Chen, K. L. Johnson, M. Hibbs-Brenner, and K. D. Choquette, “Push-Pull Modulation of a Composite-Resonator Vertical-Cavity Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46, 438–446 (2010).
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D. M. Grasso, D. K. Serkland, G. M. Peake, K. M. Geib, and K. D. Choquette, “Direct modulation characteristics of composite resonator vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42, 1248–1254 (2006).
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A. Bhatnagar, D. W. E. Allsopp, X. Chen, M. P. Earnshaw, and W. Batty, “Eletrorefraction Associated with WannierStark Localization in Strongly Coupled Three-Quantum-Well Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36, 702–707 (2000).
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L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12, 1032–1044 (2006).
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M. Brunner, K. Gulden, R. Hovel, M. Moser, J. Carlin, R. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Continuous-wave dual-wavelength lasing in a two-section vertical-cavity laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12, 1316–1318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Badilita, J. F. Carlin, M. Illegems, M. Brunner, G. Vershaffelt, and K. Panajotov, “Control of polarization switching in vertical coupled-cavities surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16, 365–367 (2004).
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E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for Ultra-Short-Reach applications,” Intel Technol. J8(2), 115–127 (2004).

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J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B (1)

M. Yakimov, J. van Eisden, V. Tokranov, M. Varanasi, S. R. Oktyabrsky, E. M. Mohammed, and I. A. Young, “Concept of feedback-free high-frequency loss modulation in detuned duo-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 (1)

A. Paraskevopoulos, H. J. Hensel, W. D. Molzow, H. Klein, N. Grote, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, C. Moeller, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, S. S. Mikhrin, P. Matthijsse, and G. Kuyt, “Ultra-high-bandwidth (> 35 GHz) electrooptically-modulated VCSEL,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006, 2699–2701 (2006).

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V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. A. Lott, H. Quast, F. Hopfer, L. Y. Karachinsky, M. Kuntz, P. Moser, A. Mutig, A. Strittmatter, V. P. Kalosha, and D. Bimberg, “Ultrahigh-speed electrooptically-modulated VCSELs: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. of SPIE6889, H8890 (2008).

P. Moser, P. Wolf, J.A. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, A. Mutig, W. Unrau, N.N. Ledentsov, W. Hofmann, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed VCSELs for energy efficient computer interconnects,” Proc. of SPIE8432, 843202 (2012).
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B. Lannoo, G. Das, J. Nelis, B. Charbonnier, A. Pizzinat, M. Popov, A. Gavler, C. P. Larsen, D. Chiaroni, T. Koonen, E. Tangdiongga, H. van den Boom, H. Wessing, M. Giltrelli, B. Ortega, I. Artundo, G. Puerto, G. Treffner, J. Faller, E. Hugues Salas, G. Tartarini, P. Faccin, R. Gaudino, E. Ortego, M. Rizzetti, W. Grabowski, and E. Grard, “Grant Agreement No. 212 352, ALPHA Architectures for fLexible Photonic Home and Access networks,” White paper 2011, ”[ONLINE]” (2012). http://www.ict-alpha.eu/upload/institutter/com/alpha/white%20paper%20d1.3p_v01d.pdf

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of a bottom emitting electrooptically modulated coupled-cavity VCSEL (EOM CC-VCSEL) (a) and 3D schematic view of three section traveling wave electrode EOM CC-VCSEL (b). The top (bottom) cavity is independently driven by voltage (current) source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EOM CC-VCSEL: (a) Reflectivity spectrum and (b) refractive index (navy line) and short wavelength (λS) optical power distribution along the CC-VCSEL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CC-VCSEL resonance wavelengths λL (red line) and λS (blue line) (a) and threshold gains (b) for the resonant two longitudinal modes as a function of modulating electrical field EEOM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D scheme (a) and electrical equivalent circuit (b) of the active (modulating) section of the modulator cavity of the TW EOM CC-VCSEL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D scheme (a) and electrical equivalent circuit (b) of the passive section of the modulator cavity of the TW EOM CC-VCSEL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schemes of the two types of TW EOM structures (top) and simplified equivalent circuit of the whole segmented TW-EO modulator (bottom).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Characteristic impedances of the passive and active modulator sections (a) and equivalent characteristic impedances of type A and B structures (b) as a function of frequency of modulation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Color maps presenting the cut-off frequency fcut-off (a), (b), the maximum reflectivity max(ΓS) in the range of fLF to fcut-off (c), (d) and the modulation efficiency ηM (e), (f) for A and B types of TWE-EOM structures (left and right column, respectively) as a function of p3 segment length and load resistance ZL.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Frequency response R and microwave reflection ΓS for type A (a) and type B (b) structure. The p3 section length is fixed to dp3 = 250 μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Distribution of the voltage amplitude along type B TW OEM for fLF = 100 MHz (a) and fcut-off = 330 GHz (b).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cut-off frequency fcut-off as a function of the length (a) dp1 of the passive section p1 and (c) dm of the modulator section m. (b) and (d) show the reflection ΓS for the 4 points (A, B, C, D) that are marked in (a) and (c), respectively.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Cut-off frequency fcut-off and the maximum reflection ΓS as a function of load resistance ZL for type A (a), and type B (b) structure and for 3 different values of electrode stripe width We = 12, 16 and 20 μm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(left) Cut-off frequency fcut-off and maximum reflection max(ΓS) as a function of load resistance ZL for type A and type B TW electrode structures and for 3 different values of the ground slot width Wg = 12, 18 and 26; (right) Reflection ΓS as a function of modulation frequency for type A and type B structures and for the 3 values of Wg.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Modulator section parameters

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Table 2 Passive section parameters

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Table 3 Modulator circuit parameters

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Table 4 Passive circuit parameters (types A, B)

Equations (14)

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Z m = j ω L 1 R SC + R CG ( R SC + j ω L 2 ) ω 2 L 2 ( L 1 L 2 ) R SC + R CG + j ω ( L 1 L 2 ) + R C
Y m = j ω C int R a + 1 R s ( j ω C int R a + 1 ) + R a + j ω C ext .
Z p = j ω L p + R Cp
Y p = j ω C p j ω C p R p + 1 + 1 R shunt
[ V n in I n in ] = m n [ V n out I n out ] ,
m n = [ cos ( γ n d n ) j Z 0 , n sin ( γ n d n ) j 1 Z 0 , n sin ( γ n d n ) cos ( γ n d n ) ] .
[ V S I S ] = [ M 11 M 12 M 21 M 22 ] [ V L I L ] , M = n = 1 N m n .
Z 0 , eq = Z L M 11 + M 12 Z L M 21 + M 22 ,
V S = V Z 0 , eq Z S + Z 0 , eq , I S = V Z S + Z 0 , eq ,
[ V i I i ] = n = N i m n 1 [ V S I S ] , m n 1 = [ cos ( γ n d n ) j Z 0 , n sin ( γ n d n ) j 1 Z 0 , n sin ( γ n d n ) cos ( γ n d n ) ] .
V i + = 1 2 ( V i + Z 0 , i I i ) , V i = 1 2 ( V i Z 0 , i I i )
V EOM ( f cut off ) = V EOM ( f LF ) 1 2 ,
Γ S = 20 log 10 V S ( f ) V S + ( f ) .
η M = V EOM ( f cut off ) V ideal × 100 %

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