Abstract

This study employs a sub-module concept to develop high-brightness light-emitting diode (HB-LED) fishing light arrays to replace traditional fishing light attractors. The horizontal/vertical (H/V) plane light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) of a LED light source are mapped to assist in the design of a non-axisymmetric lens with a fish-attracting light pattern that illuminates sufficiently large areas and alternates between bright and dark. These LED fishing light attractors are capable of attracting schools of fish toward the perimeter of the luminous zone surrounding fishing boats. Three CT2 boats (10 to 20 ton capacity) were recruited to conduct a field test for 1 y on the sea off the southwestern coast of Taiwan. Field tests show that HB-LED fishing light array installed 5 m above the boat deck illuminated a sea surface of 5 × 12 m and achieved an illuminance of 2000 lx. The test results show that the HB-LED fishing light arrays increased the mean catch of the three boats by 5% to 27%. In addition, the experimental boats consumed 15% to 17% less fuel than their counterparts.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Choi, S. K. Choi, S. J. Kim, G. S. Kil, and C. Y. Choi, “Photoreaction analysis of squids for the development of a LED-fishing lamp, ” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Maritime and Naval Science and Engineering, (Brasov, Romania, 2009), pp.92–95.
  3. H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Marchesan, M. Spoto, L. Verginella, and E. A. Ferrero, “Behavioural effects of artificial light on fish species of commercial interest,” Fish. Res.73(1-2), 171–185 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook (SPIE Press, 1989).
  6. I. Moreno, “Configurations of LED arrays for uniform illumination,” Proc. SPIE5622, 713–718 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, “Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance,” Appl. Opt.45(10), 2265–2272 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(10), 105501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Wang, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design of compact freeform lens for application specific Light-Emitting Diode packaging,” Opt. Express18(2), 413–425 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Wang, K. Qian, and Y. Luo, “Discontinuous free-form lens design for prescribed irradiance,” Appl. Opt.46(18), 3716–3723 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Ries and J. Muschaweck, “Tailored freeform optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19(3), 590–595 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Wood, Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices (Prentice-Hall International, 1994).
  15. I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LEDs array: where does far-field begin,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580R, 70580R-9 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Piegl and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book 2nd ed (Springer, 1996).

2011

2010

2009

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LEDs array: where does far-field begin,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580R, 70580R-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

M. Marchesan, M. Spoto, L. Verginella, and E. A. Ferrero, “Behavioural effects of artificial light on fish species of commercial interest,” Fish. Res.73(1-2), 171–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

I. Moreno, “Configurations of LED arrays for uniform illumination,” Proc. SPIE5622, 713–718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Asakura, K.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avendaño-Alejo, M.

Chen, F.

Ding, Y.

Ferrero, E. A.

M. Marchesan, M. Spoto, L. Verginella, and E. A. Ferrero, “Behavioural effects of artificial light on fish species of commercial interest,” Fish. Res.73(1-2), 171–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiyasu, H.

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujiyasu, K.

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukuchi, K.-

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P. F.

Harada, M.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hosogane, K.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ikoma, S.

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishigaki, T.

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, H.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Liu, Z. Y.

K. Wang, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design of compact freeform lens for application specific Light-Emitting Diode packaging,” Opt. Express18(2), 413–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Luo, X. B.

K. Wang, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design of compact freeform lens for application specific Light-Emitting Diode packaging,” Opt. Express18(2), 413–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Marchesan, M.

M. Marchesan, M. Spoto, L. Verginella, and E. A. Ferrero, “Behavioural effects of artificial light on fish species of commercial interest,” Fish. Res.73(1-2), 171–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moniwa, M.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LEDs array: where does far-field begin,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580R, 70580R-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, “Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance,” Appl. Opt.45(10), 2265–2272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, “Configurations of LED arrays for uniform illumination,” Proc. SPIE5622, 713–718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muschaweck, J.

Ohsawa, H.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, K.

Qin, Z.

K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ries, H.

Sasa, K.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spoto, M.

M. Marchesan, M. Spoto, L. Verginella, and E. A. Ferrero, “Behavioural effects of artificial light on fish species of commercial interest,” Fish. Res.73(1-2), 171–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LEDs array: where does far-field begin,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580R, 70580R-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sunayama, S.

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tzonchev, R. I.

Ujihara, S.

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verginella, L.

M. Marchesan, M. Spoto, L. Verginella, and E. A. Ferrero, “Behavioural effects of artificial light on fish species of commercial interest,” Fish. Res.73(1-2), 171–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Wang, L.

Watanabe, N.

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Yoshino, H.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. R.

Appl. Opt.

Fish. Res.

M. Marchesan, M. Spoto, L. Verginella, and E. A. Ferrero, “Behavioural effects of artificial light on fish species of commercial interest,” Fish. Res.73(1-2), 171–185 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Vis. Environ.

T. Okamoto, K. Takahashi, H. Ohsawa, K.- Fukuchi, K. Hosogane, S. Kobayashi, M. Moniwa, K. Sasa, H. Yoshino, H. Ishikawa, M. Harada, K. Asakura, and H. Ishii, “Application of LEDs to fishing lights for Pacific saury,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 88–92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiyasu, T. Ishigaki, K. Fujiyasu, S. Ujihara, N. Watanabe, S. Sunayama, and S. Ikoma, “LED and semiconductor photo-effects on living things,” J. Light Vis. Environ.32(2), 222–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

I. Moreno, “Configurations of LED arrays for uniform illumination,” Proc. SPIE5622, 713–718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LEDs array: where does far-field begin,” Proc. SPIE7058, 70580R, 70580R-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Piegl and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book 2nd ed (Springer, 1996).

D. Wood, Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices (Prentice-Hall International, 1994).

J. S. Choi, S. K. Choi, S. J. Kim, G. S. Kil, and C. Y. Choi, “Photoreaction analysis of squids for the development of a LED-fishing lamp, ” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Maritime and Naval Science and Engineering, (Brasov, Romania, 2009), pp.92–95.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook (SPIE Press, 1989).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram of on-board LED array fish-attractors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic diagram of sub-modules, single LED module, and LED array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The schematic diagram of the sub-module lens array and target plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIDCs of the LED light source. (a) LIDC on the vertical plane (@θLED = 0°). (b) LIDC on the horizontal plane (@ ΦLED = 45°).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LIDCs needed by the sub-module lens. (a) LIDC on the vertical plane (@θLens = 0°). (b) LIDC on the horizontal plane (@ ΦLens = 45°).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Constructing the curves of the lens. (a) Construction of the main curve. (b) Construction of the minor curves.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Construction of the sub-module lens. (a) Construction of the curves. (b) Construction of the physical lens through the lofting method.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of simulation test on an LED lighting module and array. (a) An LED lighting module model. (b) Luminous distribution of the sub-module. (c) The LIDC on the vertical plane. (d) The LIDC on the horizontal plane. (e) Simulation of the illuminated area by DIALux. (f) Luminous distribution on the illuminated area.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The measurement of actual sub-module lens. (a) A physical sub-module lens. (b) The light pattern of the sub-module lens 5m away from the light source. (c) Goniophotometer system. (d) The horizontal LIDC of a sub-module lens.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Installation and illumination of LED fishing light attractors. (a) LED lighting modules arrayed on the boatside. (b) An LED fish-attracting light illuminating a pier area. (c) The measured illuminance of an LED array fishing light.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of traditional and LED fishing lamps on three CT2 fishing boats. (a) Compare of catch. (b) Compare of consumption.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(ϕ)= a 0 + a 1 ϕ 2 + a 2 ϕ 4 + a 3 ϕ 6 + a 4 ϕ 8
E(x,y, z 0 )= i=1 n I( ϕ i )cos θ i r i 2
2 E x 2 | x=0,y=0 = f 0 ( a 0 , a 1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 )=0
0.8 f i ( a 0 , a 1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 )= E( x i , y i , z 0 ) E(0,0, z 0 ) 1.2 i=1~4
I LED (ϕ)= I LED (0) cos m ϕ
m= ln2 ln(cos ϕ 1/2 )
[ 1+ n 2 2n( O I ) ] 1/2 N = O n I

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