Abstract

We present a characterization of the spectral modulation and wavelength shifting induced via cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) core optical fiber. Pump-probe experiments using picosecond and femtosecond signal pulses are shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulations of the coupled nonlinear propagation equations. The large 10nm red-shifts obtained with the femtosecond probe pulses are attributed to the high Kerr nonlinearity of the a-Si:H material. Extinction ratios as high as 12dB are measured for the conversion process at telecommunications wavelengths, indicating the potential for high-speed nonlinear optical control in a-Si:H fibers and waveguides.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (4)

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

E. Tien, X. Sang, F. Qing, Q. Song, and O. Boyraz, “Ultrafast pulse characterization using cross phase modulation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance,” Opt. Express17, 18076–18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data9, 561–658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Badding, J. V.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “All-optical modulation using two-photon absorption in silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express19, 19078–19083 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express16, 16826–16831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance,” Opt. Express17, 18076–18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Ballato, J.

Baril, N. F.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express16, 16826–16831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ben Bakir, B.

Borhan, A.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

E. Tien, X. Sang, F. Qing, Q. Song, and O. Boyraz, “Ultrafast pulse characterization using cross phase modulation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, “All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express12, 4094–4102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carletti, L.

Chen, X.

Clemmen, S.

Corcoran, B.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

Daw, M.

Day, T. D.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “All-optical modulation using two-photon absorption in silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express19, 19078–19083 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekker, R.

Densmore, A.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, M. Pelusi, D-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160,Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express18, 3905–3910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Eggleton, B. J.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, M.

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, K.

Först, M.

Foster, M. A.

Foy, P.

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photon.4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Galili, M.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, D. F.

Gopalan, V.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Grosse, P.

Hasama, T.

Hawkins, T.

He, R.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Healy, N.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Peacock, P. Mehta, P. Horak, and N. Healy, “Nonlinear pulse dynamics in multimode silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37, 3351–3353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “All-optical modulation using two-photon absorption in silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express19, 19078–19083 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express16, 16826–16831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance,” Opt. Express17, 18076–18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horak, P.

Hsieh, H.

Hsieh, I.

Hu, H.

Ishikawa, H.

Itoga, E.

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, M. Pelusi, D-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160,Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express18, 3905–3910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Kamei, T.

Kawashima, H.

Keshavarzi, B.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Kokuoz, B.

Koonath, P.

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photon.4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthi, M.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuyken, B.

Lee, M. M.

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photon.4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data9, 561–658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Ma, R.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, M. Pelusi, D-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160,Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express18, 3905–3910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massar, S.

McMillen, C.

McNab, S. J.

Mehta, P.

Menezo, S.

Monat, C.

Moormann, C.

Mori, M.

Morthier, G.

Moss, D. J.

Nakanishi, K.

Namiki, S.

Niehusmann, J.

Ogasawara, T.

Okano, M.

Osgood, R. M.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Panoiu, N. C.

Peacock, A. C.

A. C. Peacock, P. Mehta, P. Horak, and N. Healy, “Nonlinear pulse dynamics in multimode silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37, 3351–3353 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “All-optical modulation using two-photon absorption in silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express19, 19078–19083 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express16, 16826–16831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance,” Opt. Express17, 18076–18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelusi, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petrovich, M. N.

Powers, D. R.

Pu, M.

Qing, F.

E. Tien, X. Sang, F. Qing, Q. Song, and O. Boyraz, “Ultrafast pulse characterization using cross phase modulation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Rao, A. M.

Reppert, J.

Rice, R. R.

Roelkens, G.

Sakakibara, Y.

Salem, R.

Sang, X.

E. Tien, X. Sang, F. Qing, Q. Song, and O. Boyraz, “Ultrafast pulse characterization using cross phase modulation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P. J. A.

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “All-optical modulation using two-photon absorption in silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express19, 19078–19083 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Nonlinear transmission properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” Opt. Express16, 16826–16831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance,” Opt. Express17, 18076–18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, J.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

Sharma, S.

Shoji, Y.

Shori, R.

Song, Q.

E. Tien, X. Sang, F. Qing, Q. Song, and O. Boyraz, “Ultrafast pulse characterization using cross phase modulation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, J. R.

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

Suda, S.

Takei, R.

Tanizawa, K.

Tien, E.

E. Tien, X. Sang, F. Qing, Q. Song, and O. Boyraz, “Ultrafast pulse characterization using cross phase modulation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vo, T. D.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wahlbrink, T.

Xu, D.

T. D. Vo, B. Corcoran, J. Schröder, M. D. Pelusi, D. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon-chip-based real-time dispersion monitoring for 640 Gbit/s DPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Tech.29, 1790–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D-X.

Yin, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Tien, X. Sang, F. Qing, Q. Song, and O. Boyraz, “Ultrafast pulse characterization using cross phase modulation in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

N. F. Baril, R. He, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, B. Keshavarzi, M. Krishnamurthi, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, P. J. A. Sazio, and J. V. Badding, “Confined high-pressure chemical deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 19–22 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech. (1)

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Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Pump-probe experiment for XPM. (b) Picosecond probe spectrogram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured XPM probe spectra (red curves) compared to simulations (blue curves) for a range of temporal delays Δt.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Femtosecond probe spectrogram. (b) Peak wavelength shifting of measured (red curve) and simulated (blue curve) XPM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Femtosecond probe input pulse. (b) Measured spectra at the maximum wavelength shifting showing the extinction ratios for the conversion.

Equations (3)

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A p z + β 1 p A p t + i β 2 p 2 2 A p t 2 = i ( γ p , p | A p | 2 + 2 γ p , s | A s | 2 ) A p 1 2 ( α + σ f p ) A p ,
A s z + β 1 s A s t + i β 2 s 2 2 A s t 2 = i ( γ s , s | A s | 2 + 2 γ s , p | A p | 2 ) A s 1 2 ( α + σ f s ) A s ,
N t = 1 2 h A eff 2 [ β TPA p , p ν p | A p | 4 + β TPA s , s ν s | A s | 2 + 2 β TPA p , s ν p | A p A s | 2 + 2 β TPA s , p ν s | A s A p | 2 ] N τ .

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