Abstract

This paper proposes a high resolution integral imaging system using a lens array composed of non-uniform decentered elemental lenses. One of the problems of integral imaging is the trade-off relationship between the resolution and the number of views. When the number of views is small, motion parallax becomes strongly discrete to maintain the viewing angle. In order to overcome this trade-off, the proposed method uses the elemental lenses whose size is smaller than that of the elemental images. To keep the images generated by the elemental lenses at constant depth, the lens array is designed so that the optical centers of elemental lenses may be located in the centers of elemental images, not in the centers of elemental lenses. To compensate optical distortion, new image rendering algorithm is developed so that undistorted 3D image may be presented with a non-uniform lens array. The proposed design of lens array can be applied to integral volumetric imaging, where display panels are layered to show volumetric images in the scheme of integral imaging.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Coarse Integral Volumetric Imaging with Flat Screen and Wide Viewing Angle,” J. Electron. Imaging21(1), 011004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

H. Deng, Q. Wang, D. Li, and F. Wang, “An integral imaging display with wide viewing angle,” SID’11 Dig. Tech. Pap.42(1), 1095–1097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Realization of undistorted volumetric multiview image with multilayered integral imaging,” Opt. Express19(21), 20395–20404 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. Kakeya, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Mano, “Electronic realization of coarse integral volumetric imaging with wide viewing angle,” Proc. SPIE7524, 752411, 752411-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Bogaert, Y. Meuret, S. Roelandt, A. Avci, H. De Smet, and H. Thienpont, “Demonstration of a multiview projection display using decentered microlens arrays,” Opt. Express18(25), 26092–26106 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H. Kakeya, “Improving image quality of coarse integral volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723726, 723726-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE6803, 680317, 680317-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900J, 64900J-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumetric solutions,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900Y, 64900Y-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S. W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt.46(18), 3766–3773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Y. Kim, J. H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S. W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt.45(18), 4334–4343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550Y, 60550Y-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE5291, 279–284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

S. Suyama, H. Takada, and S. Ohtsuka, “A direct-vision 3-D display using a new depth-fusing perceptual phenomenon in 2-D displays with different depths,” IEICE Trans. on Electron.,E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, and S. Ohtsuka, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” SID’00 Dig. Tech. Pap.31(1), 1208–1211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(2), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci.146, 446–451 (1908).

Avci, A.

Bogaert, L.

Cho, S. W.

Choi, H.

Date, M.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(2), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Smet, H.

Deng, H.

H. Deng, Q. Wang, D. Li, and F. Wang, “An integral imaging display with wide viewing angle,” SID’11 Dig. Tech. Pap.42(1), 1095–1097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebisu, H.

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumetric solutions,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900Y, 64900Y-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. S.

Javidi, B.

Jung, S.

Kakeya, H.

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Coarse Integral Volumetric Imaging with Flat Screen and Wide Viewing Angle,” J. Electron. Imaging21(1), 011004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Realization of undistorted volumetric multiview image with multilayered integral imaging,” Opt. Express19(21), 20395–20404 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kakeya, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Mano, “Electronic realization of coarse integral volumetric imaging with wide viewing angle,” Proc. SPIE7524, 752411, 752411-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Improving image quality of coarse integral volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723726, 723726-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE6803, 680317, 680317-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900J, 64900J-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumetric solutions,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900Y, 64900Y-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550Y, 60550Y-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, Y.

Kimura, T.

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumetric solutions,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900Y, 64900Y-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

H. Kakeya, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Mano, “Electronic realization of coarse integral volumetric imaging with wide viewing angle,” Proc. SPIE7524, 752411, 752411-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Li, D.

H. Deng, Q. Wang, D. Li, and F. Wang, “An integral imaging display with wide viewing angle,” SID’11 Dig. Tech. Pap.42(1), 1095–1097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci.146, 446–451 (1908).

Mano, Y.

H. Kakeya, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Mano, “Electronic realization of coarse integral volumetric imaging with wide viewing angle,” Proc. SPIE7524, 752411, 752411-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, I.

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550Y, 60550Y-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meuret, Y.

Min, S. W.

Min, S.-W.

Ohtsuka, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, and S. Ohtsuka, “A direct-vision 3-D display using a new depth-fusing perceptual phenomenon in 2-D displays with different depths,” IEICE Trans. on Electron.,E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, and S. Ohtsuka, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” SID’00 Dig. Tech. Pap.31(1), 1208–1211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, G.

Park, J. H.

Park, J.-H.

Roelandt, S.

Sakai, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, and S. Ohtsuka, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” SID’00 Dig. Tech. Pap.31(1), 1208–1211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, S.

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Coarse Integral Volumetric Imaging with Flat Screen and Wide Viewing Angle,” J. Electron. Imaging21(1), 011004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE5291, 279–284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, and S. Ohtsuka, “A direct-vision 3-D display using a new depth-fusing perceptual phenomenon in 2-D displays with different depths,” IEICE Trans. on Electron.,E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, and S. Ohtsuka, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” SID’00 Dig. Tech. Pap.31(1), 1208–1211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(2), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, and S. Ohtsuka, “A direct-vision 3-D display using a new depth-fusing perceptual phenomenon in 2-D displays with different depths,” IEICE Trans. on Electron.,E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, and S. Ohtsuka, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” SID’00 Dig. Tech. Pap.31(1), 1208–1211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(2), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Traub, A. C.

Uehira, K.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, and S. Ohtsuka, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” SID’00 Dig. Tech. Pap.31(1), 1208–1211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

H. Deng, Q. Wang, D. Li, and F. Wang, “An integral imaging display with wide viewing angle,” SID’11 Dig. Tech. Pap.42(1), 1095–1097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

H. Deng, Q. Wang, D. Li, and F. Wang, “An integral imaging display with wide viewing angle,” SID’11 Dig. Tech. Pap.42(1), 1095–1097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, R.

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550Y, 60550Y-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photograhie integrale,” Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci.146, 446–451 (1908).

Dig. Tech. Pap. (2)

H. Deng, Q. Wang, D. Li, and F. Wang, “An integral imaging display with wide viewing angle,” SID’11 Dig. Tech. Pap.42(1), 1095–1097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, and S. Ohtsuka, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” SID’00 Dig. Tech. Pap.31(1), 1208–1211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. on Electron., (1)

S. Suyama, H. Takada, and S. Ohtsuka, “A direct-vision 3-D display using a new depth-fusing perceptual phenomenon in 2-D displays with different depths,” IEICE Trans. on Electron.,E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

S. Sawada and H. Kakeya, “Coarse Integral Volumetric Imaging with Flat Screen and Wide Viewing Angle,” J. Electron. Imaging21(1), 011004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(2), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (7)

R. Yasui, I. Matsuda, and H. Kakeya, “Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550Y, 60550Y-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebisu, T. Kimura, and H. Kakeya, “Realization of electronic 3D display combining multiview and volumetric solutions,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900Y, 64900Y-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900J, 64900J-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE5291, 279–284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE6803, 680317, 680317-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Improving image quality of coarse integral volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE7237, 723726, 723726-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Mano, “Electronic realization of coarse integral volumetric imaging with wide viewing angle,” Proc. SPIE7524, 752411, 752411-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res.44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (2202 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (690 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (400 KB)     

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of coarse integral volumetric imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of DFD for distorted image planes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integral imaging with wider viewing angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Shapes of real images generated by conventional elemental lenses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Integral imaging composed of decentered elemental lenses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Conventional elemental lens and decentered elemental lens

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Shapes of real images generated by decentered elemental lenses.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Viewpoint of projection transformation located on the opposite side of observer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Projection transformation from the opposite side of the observer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Distortion correction procedure.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Distortion correction in the depth direction.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Elemental image of CIVI with decentered elemental lenses.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

CIVI prototype system with decentered elemental lenses.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Observed images with CIVI composed of decentered lenses (Media 1, Media 2).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Observed images with CIVI composed of conventional elemental lenses and elemental images larger than elemental lenses (Media 3).

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