Abstract

We demonstrate direct amplitude shaping of high harmonics (HHs) using a reflective micromirror array based on micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS) technology. We show independent control over the intensity of each HH in the observed range (14 – 36 eV). These results are used to calculate the control achieved over the temporal structure of the attosecond pulses in the train.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Worner, “All-optical measurement of high-harmonic amplitudes and phases in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033903 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Frassetto, C. Cacho, C. A. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, P. Villoresi, W. A. Bryan, E. Springate, and L. Poletto, “Single-grating monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express19, 19169–19181 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. T. Zhu, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, Q. S. Huang, Z. S. Wang, K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl Optics49, 3922–3925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. M. Healion, I. V. Schweigert, and S. Mukamel, “Probing multiple core-hole interactions in the Nitrogen K-edge of DNA base pairs by multidimensional attosecond X-ray spectroscopy. A simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A112, 11449–11461 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Miao, A. M. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. J. Miller, “Wideband deterministic all-order polarization-mode dispersion generation via pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20, 159–161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett.32, 2897–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Controlling the spectral shape of coherent soft X-rays,” Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt.80, 277–280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature418, 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. J. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, “Quantum control of energy flow in light harvesting,” Nature417, 533–535 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature406, 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

Adams, D.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albert, O.

Andre, J. M.

J. T. Zhu, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, Q. S. Huang, Z. S. Wang, K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl Optics49, 3922–3925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Auge, F.

Backus, S.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature406, 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakarezos, M.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

Bartels, R.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature406, 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

Bertrand, J. B.

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Worner, “All-optical measurement of high-harmonic amplitudes and phases in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033903 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonacina, L.

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutou, V.

M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryan, W. A.

Cacho, C.

Carre, B.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambaret, J. P.

Chang, C. C.

Christov, I. P.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature406, 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cogdell, R. J.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. J. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, “Quantum control of energy flow in light harvesting,” Nature417, 533–535 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courvoisier, F.

M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dantus, M.

de Abajo, F. J.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Rooij, N. F.

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dela Cruz, J. M.

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douillet, D.

Drescher, M.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dromey, B.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature418, 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dzelzainis, T.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Extermann, J.

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, F.

Frasinski, L. J.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frassetto, F.

Froud, C. A.

Gaarde, M. B.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Controlling the spectral shape of coherent soft X-rays,” Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt.80, 277–280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, J. M.

Guyon, L.

M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healion, D. M.

D. M. Healion, I. V. Schweigert, and S. Mukamel, “Probing multiple core-hole interactions in the Nitrogen K-edge of DNA base pairs by multidimensional attosecond X-ray spectroscopy. A simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A112, 11449–11461 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herek, J. L.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. J. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, “Quantum control of energy flow in light harvesting,” Nature417, 533–535 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M. C.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, M. H.

J. T. Zhu, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, Q. S. Huang, Z. S. Wang, K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl Optics49, 3922–3925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Q. S.

J. T. Zhu, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, Q. S. Huang, Z. S. Wang, K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl Optics49, 3922–3925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

Johnsson, P.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonnard, P.

J. T. Zhu, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, Q. S. Huang, Z. S. Wang, K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl Optics49, 3922–3925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jutzi, F.

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamperidis, C.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature406, 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazamias, S.

Kiselev, D.

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lani, S.

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Guen, K.

J. T. Zhu, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, Q. S. Huang, Z. S. Wang, K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl Optics49, 3922–3925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. C.

J. T. Zhu, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, Q. S. Huang, Z. S. Wang, K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl Optics49, 3922–3925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, I. S.

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, “Shaping the power spectrum of ultra-wideband radio-frequency signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw Theory Tech.54, 4247–4255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Martens, R.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lozovoy, V. V.

Mairesse, Y.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauritsson, J.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinney, J. D.

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, “Shaping the power spectrum of ultra-wideband radio-frequency signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw Theory Tech.54, 4247–4255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, H. X.

H. X. Miao, A. M. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. J. Miller, “Wideband deterministic all-order polarization-mode dispersion generation via pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20, 159–161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. J.

H. X. Miao, A. M. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. J. Miller, “Wideband deterministic all-order polarization-mode dispersion generation via pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20, 159–161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, L.

H. X. Miao, A. M. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. J. Miller, “Wideband deterministic all-order polarization-mode dispersion generation via pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20, 159–161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misoguti, L.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature406, 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motzkus, M.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. J. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, “Quantum control of energy flow in light harvesting,” Nature417, 533–535 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukamel, S.

D. M. Healion, I. V. Schweigert, and S. Mukamel, “Probing multiple core-hole interactions in the Nitrogen K-edge of DNA base pairs by multidimensional attosecond X-ray spectroscopy. A simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A112, 11449–11461 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

Murnane, M. M.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature406, 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nenadl, O.

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

Noell, W.

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature418, 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papadogiannis, N. A.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, A.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Controlling the spectral shape of coherent soft X-rays,” Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt.80, 277–280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

Rabitz, H.

M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanathan, V.

Reitze, D. H.

Riedel, R.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roslund, J.

M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossbach, J.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, M.

M. Roth, L. Guyon, J. Roslund, V. Boutou, F. Courvoisier, J. P. Wolf, and H. Rabitz, “Quantum control of tightly competitive product channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 253001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupenyan, A.

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Worner, “All-optical measurement of high-harmonic amplitudes and phases in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033903 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salieres, P.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

Sardesai, H. P.

Schafer, K. J.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, M.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweigert, I. V.

D. M. Healion, I. V. Schweigert, and S. Mukamel, “Probing multiple core-hole interactions in the Nitrogen K-edge of DNA base pairs by multidimensional attosecond X-ray spectroscopy. A simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. A112, 11449–11461 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature418, 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Controlling the spectral shape of coherent soft X-rays,” Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt.80, 277–280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spindler, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springate, E.

Stagira, S.

Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature446, 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taieb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salieres, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatarakis, M.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tavella, F.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turcu, I. C. E.

Varju, K.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vdovin, G.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature406, 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Worner, “All-optical measurement of high-harmonic amplitudes and phases in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 033903 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

Wahlstrom, C. G.

R. Lopez-Martens, K. Varju, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salieres, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlstrom, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, D.

T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Controlling the spectral shape of coherent soft X-rays,” Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt.80, 277–280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. S.

J. T. Zhu, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, Q. S. Huang, Z. S. Wang, K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, and P. Jonnard, “Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength,” Appl Optics49, 3922–3925 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weber, S. M.

J. Extermann, S. M. Weber, D. Kiselev, L. Bonacina, S. Lani, F. Jutzi, W. Noell, N. F. de Rooij, and J. P. Wolf, “Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective mems pulse shaper,” Opt. Express19, 7580–7586 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Weber, L. Bonacina, W. Noell, D. Kiselev, J. Extermann, F. Jutzi, S. Lani, O. Nenadl, J. P. Wolf, and N. F. de Rooij, “Design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of a MEMS-based mirror array for femtosecond pulse-shaping in phase and amplitude,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 075106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihe, F.

Weiner, A. M.

H. X. Miao, A. M. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. J. Miller, “Wideband deterministic all-order polarization-mode dispersion generation via pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20, 159–161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, “Shaping the power spectrum of ultra-wideband radio-frequency signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw Theory Tech.54, 4247–4255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chang, H. P. Sardesai, and A. M. Weiner, “Dispersion-free fiber transmission for femtosecond pulses by use of a dispersion-compensating fiber and a programmable pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett.23, 283–285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf, “Coherent control of high harmonic generation via dual-gas multijet arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 175002 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winterfeldt, C.

T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Controlling the spectral shape of coherent soft X-rays,” Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt.80, 277–280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wohlleben, W.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. J. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, “Quantum control of energy flow in light harvesting,” Nature417, 533–535 (2002).
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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (269 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1260 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (263 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (85 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

High-harmonic pulse shaping experiment in the XUV: The HHs generated in the gas jet are spectrally dispersed and focused onto a MCP detector via a reflective linear micromirror array (MEMS), which can individually control the reflection angle of each HH separately and deviate it onto a spatial filter (mask), as shown in the insets in red and blue rectangles. The red line shows the unshaped spectrum (shifted vertically for clarity) and the blue line shows the spectrum with maximal attenuation of H11.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Selective displacement of HHs. (A) Displacement of H17 as a function of the applied voltage, observed on the MCP and vertically averaged energy plots. (B) HH-selective variable beamsplitter: 4/5 of the intensity of H13 is displaced while 1/5 remains at the same location (i.e. it conserves the same k-vector).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gray-scale amplitude shaping of H11 from 0 to 100%, obtained by progressively tilting 0–12 of the illuminated micromirrors as observed on the MCP (a–g). (h) HH intensity as function of the activated mirrors. The step-like behavior is caused by the limited number of working mirrors on the MEMS chip [16].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of the temporal structure of the XUV electric fields composed of the observed harmonics H11-H19 with the measured intensities, after (A and C) and before (B and D) the pulse shaper. The upper row shows the XUV waveforms obtained by assuming a flat spectral phase across the observed harmonic orders, whereas the lower row shows the XUV waveforms obtained when using the spectral phase measured under nearly identical conditions [22].

Equations (1)

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E X U V ( t ) = q = 11 19 A q exp [ - i ω q t + i φ ( ω q ) ]

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