Abstract

We propose a simple and efficient light launch scheme for a helical-core fiber (HCF) by using an adiabatically tapered splice technique, through which we overcome its inherent difficulty with light launch owing to the large lateral offset and angular tilt of its core. We experimentally demonstrate single-mode excitation in the HCF in this configuration, which yields the coupling efficiency of around −5.9 dB (26%) for a ~1.1-μm light input when the splice joint is tapered down to 30 μm in diameter. To our knowledge, this is the first proof-of-principle report on the fusion-splice coupling between an HCF and a conventional single-mode fiber.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

2010

G. Brambilla, Y. Jung, and F. Renna, “Optical fiber microwires and nanowires manufactured by modified flame brushing technique: properties and applications,” Front. Optoelectron. China3(1), 61–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express12(25), 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, R. B. Williams, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Helical-core ytterbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett.40(21), 1325–1326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. B. S. Soh, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and L. J. Cooper, “Geometrical factor modification of helical-core fiber radiation loss formula,” Opt. Commun.222(1-6), 235–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

1998

1993

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, “Light-propagation characteristics in thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1584–1591 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

A. Altintas and J. D. Love, “Effective cut-offs for modes on helical fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.22(3), 213–226 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. Qian, “Coupled-mode theory for helical fibres,” IEE Proceedings J.135, 178–182 (1988).

1987

R. D. Birch, “Fabrication and characterisation of circularly birefringent helical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(1), 50–52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Qian and C. D. Hussey, “Circular birefringence in helical-core fibre,” Electron. Lett.22(10), 515–517 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mortimore and J. V. Wright, “Low-loss joints between dissimilar fibres by tapering fusion splices,” Electron. Lett.22(6), 318–319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976

Altintas, A.

A. Altintas and J. D. Love, “Effective cut-offs for modes on helical fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.22(3), 213–226 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Birch, R. D.

R. D. Birch, “Fabrication and characterisation of circularly birefringent helical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(1), 50–52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

N. Healy, E. McDaid, D. G. Murphy, C. D. Hussey, and T. A. Birks, “Low-loss singlemode fibre 1x2 Y-junction,” Electron. Lett.42(13), 740–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Black, R. J.

Boyland, A. J.

Y. Jeong, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, S.-H. Chung, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Multi-kilowatt single-mode ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor.13(4), 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Broeng, J.

Bures, J.

Chung, S.-H.

Y. Jeong, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, S.-H. Chung, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Multi-kilowatt single-mode ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor.13(4), 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 226–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, R. B. Williams, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Helical-core ytterbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett.40(21), 1325–1326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Codemard, C. A.

Cooper, L. J.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 226–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, R. B. Williams, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Helical-core ytterbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett.40(21), 1325–1326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. B. S. Soh, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and L. J. Cooper, “Geometrical factor modification of helical-core fiber radiation loss formula,” Opt. Commun.222(1-6), 235–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deguil-Robin, N.

Dong, L.

Drauschke, A.

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Fermann, M. E.

Fuchs, H.-J.

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

Gonthier, F.

Guan, C.

Healy, N.

N. Healy, E. McDaid, D. G. Murphy, C. D. Hussey, and T. A. Birks, “Low-loss singlemode fibre 1x2 Y-junction,” Electron. Lett.42(13), 740–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hénault, A.

Herda, R.

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hussey, C. D.

N. Healy, E. McDaid, D. G. Murphy, C. D. Hussey, and T. A. Birks, “Low-loss singlemode fibre 1x2 Y-junction,” Electron. Lett.42(13), 740–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Qian and C. D. Hussey, “Circular birefringence in helical-core fibre,” Electron. Lett.22(10), 515–517 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, C.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jeong, Y.

Jiang, Z.

Jung, Y.

Kawakami, S.

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, “Light-propagation characteristics in thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1584–1591 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koplow, J. P.

Lacroix, S.

Ladouceur, F.

Lee, B.

Li, J.

Liem, A.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

Liu, Z.

Love, J. D.

A. Altintas and J. D. Love, “Effective cut-offs for modes on helical fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.22(3), 213–226 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Marciante, J. R.

Marcuse, D.

McDaid, E.

N. Healy, E. McDaid, D. G. Murphy, C. D. Hussey, and T. A. Birks, “Low-loss singlemode fibre 1x2 Y-junction,” Electron. Lett.42(13), 740–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mortimore, D. B.

D. B. Mortimore and J. V. Wright, “Low-loss joints between dissimilar fibres by tapering fusion splices,” Electron. Lett.22(6), 318–319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. G.

N. Healy, E. McDaid, D. G. Murphy, C. D. Hussey, and T. A. Birks, “Low-loss singlemode fibre 1x2 Y-junction,” Electron. Lett.42(13), 740–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Y. Jeong, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, S.-H. Chung, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Multi-kilowatt single-mode ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor.13(4), 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. Nilsson, “High-power tunable single-frequency single-mode erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber master-oscillator power amplifier source,” Opt. Lett.30(22), 2997–2999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express12(25), 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. S. Soh, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and L. J. Cooper, “Geometrical factor modification of helical-core fiber radiation loss formula,” Opt. Commun.222(1-6), 235–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Payne, D. N.

Y. Jeong, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, S.-H. Chung, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Multi-kilowatt single-mode ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor.13(4), 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express12(25), 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, X.

Petersson, A.

Pla, J.

Poladian, L.

Qian, J.

J. Qian, “Coupled-mode theory for helical fibres,” IEE Proceedings J.135, 178–182 (1988).

J. Qian and C. D. Hussey, “Circular birefringence in helical-core fibre,” Electron. Lett.22(10), 515–517 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Renna, F.

G. Brambilla, Y. Jung, and F. Renna, “Optical fiber microwires and nanowires manufactured by modified flame brushing technique: properties and applications,” Front. Optoelectron. China3(1), 61–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Rockwell, D. A.

Röser, F.

Sahu, J. K.

Y. Jeong, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, S.-H. Chung, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Multi-kilowatt single-mode ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor.13(4), 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 226–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. B. S. Soh, C. A. Codemard, and J. Nilsson, “High-power tunable single-frequency single-mode erbium:ytterbium codoped large-core fiber master-oscillator power amplifier source,” Opt. Lett.30(22), 2997–2999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express12(25), 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, R. B. Williams, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Helical-core ytterbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett.40(21), 1325–1326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. B. S. Soh, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and L. J. Cooper, “Geometrical factor modification of helical-core fiber radiation loss formula,” Opt. Commun.222(1-6), 235–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Schnabel, B.

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, “Light-propagation characteristics in thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1584–1591 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shkunov, V. V.

Siegman, A. E.

Soh, D. B. S.

Steinmetz, A.

Stutzki, F.

Tuennermann, A.

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, P.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 226–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, R. B. Williams, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Helical-core ytterbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett.40(21), 1325–1326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. B.

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, R. B. Williams, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Helical-core ytterbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett.40(21), 1325–1326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. V.

D. B. Mortimore and J. V. Wright, “Low-loss joints between dissimilar fibres by tapering fusion splices,” Electron. Lett.22(6), 318–319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, T.

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, “Light-propagation characteristics in thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1584–1591 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yuan, L.

Zellmer, H.

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tuennermann, “Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings,” Electron. Lett.39(3), 276–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, E. McDaid, D. G. Murphy, C. D. Hussey, and T. A. Birks, “Low-loss singlemode fibre 1x2 Y-junction,” Electron. Lett.42(13), 740–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Birch, “Fabrication and characterisation of circularly birefringent helical fibres,” Electron. Lett.23(1), 50–52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mortimore and J. V. Wright, “Low-loss joints between dissimilar fibres by tapering fusion splices,” Electron. Lett.22(6), 318–319 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, L. J. Cooper, R. B. Williams, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Helical-core ytterbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett.40(21), 1325–1326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Qian and C. D. Hussey, “Circular birefringence in helical-core fibre,” Electron. Lett.22(10), 515–517 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Front. Optoelectron. China

G. Brambilla, Y. Jung, and F. Renna, “Optical fiber microwires and nanowires manufactured by modified flame brushing technique: properties and applications,” Front. Optoelectron. China3(1), 61–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proceedings J.

J. Qian, “Coupled-mode theory for helical fibres,” IEE Proceedings J.135, 178–182 (1988).

J. Lightwave Technol.

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, “Light-propagation characteristics in thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(10), 1584–1591 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Opt. Soc. Kor.

Y. Jeong, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, S.-H. Chung, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Multi-kilowatt single-mode ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor.13(4), 416–422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. B. S. Soh, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and L. J. Cooper, “Geometrical factor modification of helical-core fiber radiation loss formula,” Opt. Commun.222(1-6), 235–242 (2003).
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Opt. Quantum Electron.

A. Altintas and J. D. Love, “Effective cut-offs for modes on helical fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.22(3), 213–226 (1990).
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C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, and A. Galvanauskas, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Proc. ASSP 2007, Vancouver, Canada, 28–31 Jan., 2007, ME2.

S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, M. Ibsen, and A. B. Grudinin, “Low cost multi-port reconfigurable erbium doped cladding pumped fibre amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2000, München, Germany, 4–7 Sep., 2000, 5.4.3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a typical HCF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiation loss rates for LP01 mode (solid line) and LP11 mode (dashed line). HCF details: Core diameter = 10 μm, core NA = 0.14, R = 120 μm, D = 4.3 mm, and outer diameter = 300 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the proposed light launch scheme into a helical core fiber via an ATS. Through the successive mode conversion along the adiabatic taper [LP01core(SMF)LP01taper(SMF)LP01taper(HCF)LP01core(HCF)], the coupling efficiency between the conventional SMF and the HCF can be significantly improved. The images in the lower part represent some typical mode field patterns along the ATS sections.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electric-field intensities of LP01taper(SMF) and LP01taper(HCF) modes with respect to the fiber dimension calculated. OD: outer diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical coupling efficiency between LP01taper(SMF) mode and LP01taper(HCF) modes based on the normalized mode overlap.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Side views of the initial, pre-tapered, and splice-tapered HCF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The light emission from the HCF via the SMF-HCF ATS visualized in the cross-sectional (a) and side views (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured output field intensity profile from the end of the HCF.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Estimated overall coupling efficiencies based on the experiment and theory.

Equations (6)

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2 α = 1 cosθ π κ 2 exp[ 2 3 ( γ 3 β ν 2 )( R sin 2 θ ) ] e ν V 2 γ 3 2 R sin 2 θ K ν1 (γa) K ν+1 (γa)
κ= n 1 2 k 0 2 β ν 2 ,
γ= β ν 2 n 2 2 k 0 2 ,
V= k 0 a n 1 2 n 2 2 .
R = R sin 2 θ = D 2 4 π 2 R .
η= | E 1 E 2 cos( β ν θx)dxdy | 2 | E 1 | 2 dxdy | E 2 | 2 dxdy ,

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