Abstract

We present a numerical approach to extract the dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the retina. The method draws upon an analogy with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. By exploiting mathematical similarities between the expressions for aberration in optical imaging and dispersion mismatch in spectral / Fourier domain OCT, Shack-Hartmann principles can be extended from the two-dimensional paraxial wavevector space (or the x-y plane in the spatial domain) to the one-dimensional wavenumber space (or the z-axis in the spatial domain). For OCT imaging of the retina, different retinal layers, such as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the photoreceptor inner and outer segment junction (IS/OS), or all the retinal layers near the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be used as point source beacons in the axial direction, analogous to point source beacons used in conventional two-dimensional Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors for aberration characterization. Subtleties regarding speckle phenomena in optical imaging, which affect the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor used in adaptive optics, also occur analogously in this application. Using this approach and carefully suppressing speckle, the dispersion mismatch in spectral / Fourier domain OCT retinal imaging can be successfully extracted numerically and used for numerical dispersion compensation to generate sharper, ultrahigh-resolution OCT images.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18(3), 497–506 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Aragón, J. L.

Artal, P.

Bajraszewski, T.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, A.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

Bonin, T.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Choma, M. A.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabritius, T.

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Findl, O.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, G.

Fujimoto, J. G.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimm, B.

Hagen-Eggert, M.

Hartl, I.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillmann, D.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H.

Hong, Y. J.

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

Ippen, E. P.

Ishikawa, H.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kärtner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, P.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, X. D.

Liang, J. Z.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lührs, C.

Makita, S.

Miura, M.

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Park, B. H.

Paunescu, L. A.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholda, C.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuman, J. S.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

Singer, B.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stur, M.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Unterhuber, A.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Wirtitsch, M.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S. H.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, “Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol.121(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: implications for intraocular ranging,” J. Biomed. Opt.4(1), 144–151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Med. (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, L. A. Paunescu, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J. S. Duker, “Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular pathology,” Ophthalmology112(11), 1922, e1–e15 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, Y. J. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-microm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1 microm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Opt. Express16(12), 8406–8420 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, T. Bonin, C. Lührs, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Common approach for compensation of axial motion artifacts in swept-source OCT and dispersion in Fourier-domain OCT,” Opt. Express20(6), 6761–6776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng. (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, and C. A. Puliafito, “Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography, Proceedings of Ophthalmic Technologies III,” (Spie - Int Soc Opt. Eng.1877, 136–143 (1993).

Other (2)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

J. W. Goodman, Speckle phenomena in optics: theory and applications (Roberts & Company, 2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Finding dispersion mismatch using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor analogy. (A) A lenslet array samples a spatially non-planar parabolic wavefront. (B) The positions of the focused spots on the focal plane are proportional to the local slopes of the wavefront. (C) The wavefront can be reconstructed by integrating the local slope in space. (D) Using multiple spectral windows for STFT, a nonlinear parabolic phase corresponding to a dispersion mismatch can be sampled in wavenumber. (E) The position of the Fourier transform for a given window is proportional to local slope of nonlinear phase. (F) The nonlinear phase can be reconstructed by integrating the local slope in wavenumber. STFT: short-time Fourier transform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation for extracting the dispersion mismatch using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor analogy. (A) A spectral interferogram with three scatterers and a Gaussian light source. (B) The Fourier transform of (A) without any dispersion mismatch. (C) The Fourier transform of the interferogram with an arbitrary simulated dispersion mismatch introduced. (D) An example of the short-time Fourier transform for a given window location. (E) A comparison of the simulated and extracted dispersion mismatches. (F) A comparison of the extracted dispersion mismatch calculated with short-time Fourier transform with a sweeping window and that calculated with Hilbert transforming the entire spectral interferogram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) A spectral interferogram with three scatterers. The wavenumbers where destructive interference occurs are indicated with red arrows. (B) A comparison of the extracted dispersion mismatch and the simulated dispersion mismatch. The red arrows indicate the same wavenumbers as in (A). Note that the abrupt changes in the extracted dispersion mismatch occur at the wavenumbers indicated with the arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the spectral / Fourier domain ultrahigh-resolution OCT systems. PC: polarization controller, DC: dispersion compensation glass, RM: reference mirror, GS: galvanometer scanner pair, DG: diffraction grating, SLD: superluminescent diode, CMOS: line scan camera. Fiber couplers of 70/30 and 80/20 were used for the first and second systems, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) An original OCT B-scan image of a normal human retina. (B, C, D) OCT B-scans numerically dispersion compensated with the mismatches shown in (E, I, J). The white arrow in (D) indicates the external limiting membrane (ELM). (E-I) Dispersion mismatches extracted from different numbers of A-scans. (J) was obtained by filtering (I) with a Savatzky-Golay filter. For (E-J), the y-axis indicates phase in radian and the x-axis sample number.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) An original OCT B-scan image of a normal human retina. Dispersion was approximately matched with a water cell in the OCT reference arm. (B) An OCT B-scan numerically dispersion compensated with the dispersion mismatch extracted from a single A-scan near the position indicated by the blue box in (A). Only the IS/OS was used for dispersion mismatch extraction. (C) An OCT B-scan numerically dispersion compensated with the dispersion mismatch extracted from a single A-scan near the position indicated by the red box in (A). The entire NFL was used for dispersion mismatch extraction. (D) The dispersion mismatch was extracted from 20 A-scans near the position indicated by the red box in (A) and averaged and filtered to reduce speckle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) An original OCT B-scan image of a patient with dry AMD. Dispersion was approximately matcched with a water cell inserted in the OCT reference arm. (B) An OCT B-scan numerically dispersion compensated with the averaged and filtered mismatch extracted from 200 A-scan near the position indicated by the yellow box in (A).

Equations (6)

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I int (k)= 1 2 ρ(k)S(k) R R (k) r S (Δz)cos{ 2kΔz+Δθ(Δz)+Δ φ disp (k) } dΔz
u(x,y)=exp{ j[ k x x+ k y y+{ k ( k x 2 + k y 2 ) 2k }z+ ϕ aber ( x,y ) ] }
I(x,y)= | e jkz + d k x d k y r s ( k x , k y )exp{ j[ k x x+ k y y+{ k ( k x 2 + k y 2 ) 2k }z+ ϕ aber ( x,y ) ] } | 2
I int (x,y)= d k x d k y r s ( k x , k y )cos{ k x x+ k y y ( k x 2 + k y 2 ) 2k z+ ϕ aber ( x,y ) }
ϕ aber ( x,y )/x=Δx/f
ϕ aber ( x,y )/y=Δy/f

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