Abstract

A new method to measure the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of a strong few-cycle laser pulse is introduced. The new concept relies on above threshold ionization (ATI) in circularly polarized laser fields and allows for CEP tagging every single laser pulse generated in few-cycle laser systems at multi-kHz repetition rates. The implementation of the new method is described and discussed quantitatively. It is shown that the introduced circular-polarization phase-meter may offer a series of advantages over existing CEP-tagging schemes based on ATI in linearly polarized laser fields.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5fs,” Opt. Lett.22, 522–524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the Carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 133901 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the Frequency of Light with Mode-locked Lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416, 233–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D35, R43–R59 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett.25, 16–18 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Zhangjin Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, “Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A80, 061402(R) (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G.G. Paulus, “A Meter of the Absolute Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Laser Physics, 15, 843–854 (2005).
  25. T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. M. Sayler, Tim Rathje, Walter Müller, Klaus Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.36, 1–3 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Bergues, Y. F. Ni, H. Helm, and I. Yu. Kiyan, “Experimental study of photodetachment in a strong laser field of circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 263002 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Boris Bergues, Zunaira Ansari, Dag Hanstorp, and Igor Yu. Kiyan, “Photodetachment in a strong laser field: An experimental test of Keldysh-like theories,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063415 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, B. Bergues, H. Hultgren, and I. Yu. Kiyan, Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 114102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B.38, 2593–2600 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

A. M. Sayler, Tim Rathje, Walter Müller, Klaus Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.36, 1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, B. Bergues, H. Hultgren, and I. Yu. Kiyan, Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 114102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhangjin Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, “Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A80, 061402(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-J pulses at 2.1-m carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express17(1), 62–69 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Boris Bergues, Zunaira Ansari, Dag Hanstorp, and Igor Yu. Kiyan, “Photodetachment in a strong laser field: An experimental test of Keldysh-like theories,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

B. Bergues, Y. F. Ni, H. Helm, and I. Yu. Kiyan, “Experimental study of photodetachment in a strong laser field of circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 263002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B.38, 2593–2600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G.G. Paulus, “A Meter of the Absolute Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Laser Physics, 15, 843–854 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the Carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 133901 (2002)
[CrossRef]

For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett.25, 16–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the Frequency of Light with Mode-locked Lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Adolph, D.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, Zunaira

Boris Bergues, Zunaira Ansari, Dag Hanstorp, and Igor Yu. Kiyan, “Photodetachment in a strong laser field: An experimental test of Keldysh-like theories,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuka, A.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the Carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 133901 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, B. Bergues, H. Hultgren, and I. Yu. Kiyan, Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 114102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bergues, B.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, B. Bergues, H. Hultgren, and I. Yu. Kiyan, Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 114102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, Y. F. Ni, H. Helm, and I. Yu. Kiyan, “Experimental study of photodetachment in a strong laser field of circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 263002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergues, Boris

Boris Bergues, Zunaira Ansari, Dag Hanstorp, and Igor Yu. Kiyan, “Photodetachment in a strong laser field: An experimental test of Keldysh-like theories,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Betsch, K. J.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butkus, R.

Camus, N.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Zhangjin

Zhangjin Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, “Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A80, 061402(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, Steven T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De, S.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5fs,” Opt. Lett.22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-J pulses at 2.1-m carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express17(1), 62–69 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, P.

Dombi, P.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Fischer, B.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuji, T.

Gazibegovic-Busuladžic, A.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, B. Bergues, H. Hultgren, and I. Yu. Kiyan, Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 114102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graf, C.

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-J pulses at 2.1-m carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express17(1), 62–69 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, John L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the Frequency of Light with Mode-locked Lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.W.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanstorp, Dag

Boris Bergues, Zunaira Ansari, Dag Hanstorp, and Igor Yu. Kiyan, “Photodetachment in a strong laser field: An experimental test of Keldysh-like theories,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasovic, E.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

B. Bergues, Y. F. Ni, H. Helm, and I. Yu. Kiyan, “Experimental study of photodetachment in a strong laser field of circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 263002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helml, W.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrwerth, O.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the Frequency of Light with Mode-locked Lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, B.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhangjin Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, “Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A80, 061402(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hultgren, H.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, B. Bergues, H. Hultgren, and I. Yu. Kiyan, Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 114102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, N.

Ishizuki, H.

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. G.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, Nora G.

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. R.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kakehata, M.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sayler, Tim Rathje, Walter Müller, Klaus Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.36, 1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-J pulses at 2.1-m carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express17(1), 62–69 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiyan, I. Yu.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, B. Bergues, H. Hultgren, and I. Yu. Kiyan, Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 114102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, Y. F. Ni, H. Helm, and I. Yu. Kiyan, “Experimental study of photodetachment in a strong laser field of circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 263002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, Igor Yu.

Boris Bergues, Zunaira Ansari, Dag Hanstorp, and Igor Yu. Kiyan, “Photodetachment in a strong laser field: An experimental test of Keldysh-like theories,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Kopold, R.

For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-J pulses at 2.1-m carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express17(1), 62–69 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett.25, 16–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5fs,” Opt. Lett.22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kremer, M.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kübel, M.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemell, Ch.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

Zhangjin Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, “Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A80, 061402(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B.38, 2593–2600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, G.

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-J pulses at 2.1-m carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express17(1), 62–69 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzger, T.

Miloševic, D. B.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, B. Bergues, H. Hultgren, and I. Yu. Kiyan, Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 114102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miloševic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, M.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mondes, V.

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Müller, W.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Müller, Walter

Ni, Y. F.

B. Bergues, Y. F. Ni, H. Helm, and I. Yu. Kiyan, “Experimental study of photodetachment in a strong laser field of circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 263002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5fs,” Opt. Lett.22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sayler, Tim Rathje, Walter Müller, Klaus Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.36, 1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G.G.

G.G. Paulus, “A Meter of the Absolute Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Laser Physics, 15, 843–854 (2005).

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pervak, V.

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Plenge, J.

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahman, N. K.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rathje, T

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rathje, T.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rathje, Tim

Rauschenberger, J.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, J.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the Frequency of Light with Mode-locked Lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rühl, E.

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, K.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, Klaus

Sartania, S.

Sayler, A. M.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sayler, Tim Rathje, Walter Müller, Klaus Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.36, 1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schätzel, M. G.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmischke, D.

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Senftleben, A.

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, V.

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5fs,” Opt. Lett.22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, Andrew

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Süßmann, F.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

Swrschek, P.

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szipöcs, R.

Taira, T.

Teisset, C.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B.38, 2593–2600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 073902 (2004).14995852
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, “Measuring the Frequency of Light with Mode-locked Lasers,” Opt. Commun.172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 073003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uphues, T.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuka, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, Robert S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, Andrew Stentz, Robert S. Windeler, John L. Hall, and Steven T. Cundiff, “Carrier- envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirth, A.

N. G. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G. G. Paulus, “Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A83, 013412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, T.

Zhangjin Chen, T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, and C. D. Lin, “Complete real-time temporal waveform characterization of single-shot few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A80, 061402(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zherebtsov, S.

F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, J. Plenge, Nora G. Johnson, M. Kübel, A. M. Sayler, V. Mondes, C. Graf, E. Rühl, G. G. Paulus, D. Schmischke, P. Swrschek, and M. F. Kling, “Single-shot velocity-map imaging of attosecond light-field control at kilohertz rate,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Znakovskaya, I.

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

For a review on rescattering in ATI see for instance: W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier- envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrierenvelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B45, 074003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B. (1)

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B.38, 2593–2600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D35, R43–R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Physics (1)

G.G. Paulus, “A Meter of the Absolute Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Laser Physics, 15, 843–854 (2005).

Nature (4)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416, 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milošević, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Commun. (1)

B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3, 813 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys. (1)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrierenvelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (3)

B. Bergues, S. Zherebtsov, Y. Deng, X. Gu, I. Znakovskaya, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, G. Marcus, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle electron control in the photoionization of xenon using a few-cycle laser pulse in the mid-infrared,” New J. Phys.13, 063010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys.10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kübel, K. J. Betsch, Nora G. Johnson, U. Kleineberg, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues, “Carrier-envelope-phase tagging in measurements with long acquisition times,” New J. Phys.14, 093027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of a circular-polarization phase-meter. Few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses (propagating along the z-axis) are focused into a cell (black circle) containing xenon gas (blue on the picture) and located in the center of a vacuum chamber (surrounding black square). Electrons (small black dots) generated in the laser focus (red disk) leave the gas cell through small openings situated on the left, right, top, and bottom of the cell and are registered by detectors (gray) placed in front of the openings. The measured electron yields N+x, Nx, N+y, and Ny are used to calculate the two asymmetries Ax and Ay.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated PAP obtained for circularly polarized 4-fs laser pulses with CEP values ϕ =0°, 15°, 30°, ..., 345°. A pulse energy of 12 μJ and a xenon gas pressure of 10−3 mbar were assumed. The blue points are obtained by calculating the asymmetries Ax and Ay using the Poisson distributed random numbers N±x, N±y. The red points are obtained from the expectation values N̄±x, N̄±y (see text for details). The absolute CEP ϕ is related to the polar angle θ of the PAP via ϕ =θ+ π/2 − θ0, with θ0 = 23°. The PAP entry corresponding to ϕ = 0 is indicated with an arrow. (b) Calculated CEP-resolved momentum distribution of ATI-electrons, projected along the x-axis. The parameters are the same as in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PAP’s calculated for different equidistant intensities ranging from 1.5 × 1013 W/cm2 to 7.3 × 1013 W/cm2. All other simulation parameters are the same as in Fig. 2. Points calculated for the same CEP are plotted using the same color. The asymmetry, i.e. the PAP radius decreases with increasing intensity. The PAP entry corresponding to ϕ = 0 is indicated by an arrow. (b) Same as in (a) but ignoring the Coulomb interaction between the ionized electron and the parent core.

Equations (1)

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E ( t ) = E 0 cos 2 ( π t / τ ) 1 + ε 2 [ cos ( ω t + ϕ ) , ε sin ( ω t + ϕ ) , 0 ] ,

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